4. Nuclear DNA: Forays into 3 billion base pairs
4.1 Before Vi-80
The Vindija-80 (Vi-80) specimen is an important find for geneticists: it yielded a minimally contaminated sample and provided those first steps into Neanderthal genomics.
Previously, attempts at retrieving ancient nuclear DNA sequences proved to be a notoriously difficult process, plagued with problems of degradation, contamination and [...]... Read more »
Green, R., Krause, J., Ptak, S., Briggs, A., Ronan, M., Simons, J., Du, L., Egholm, M., Rothberg, J., Paunovic, M.... (2006) Analysis of one million base pairs of Neanderthal DNA. Nature, 444(7117), 330-336. DOI: 10.1038/nature05336
Briggs AW, Good JM, Green RE, Krause J, Maricic T, Stenzel U, Lalueza-Fox C, Rudan P, Brajkovic D, Kucan Z.... (2009) Targeted retrieval and analysis of five Neandertal mtDNA genomes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5938), 318-21. PMID: 19608918
Krause J, Lalueza-Fox C, Orlando L, Enard W, Green RE, Burbano HA, Hublin JJ, Hänni C, Fortea J, de la Rasilla M.... (2007) The derived FOXP2 variant of modern humans was shared with Neandertals. Current biology : CB, 17(21), 1908-12. PMID: 17949978
Lalueza-Fox C, Römpler H, Caramelli D, Stäubert C, Catalano G, Hughes D, Rohland N, Pilli E, Longo L, Condemi S.... (2007) A melanocortin 1 receptor allele suggests varying pigmentation among Neanderthals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5855), 1453-5. PMID: 17962522
It can be argued that one of the most influential articles ever published in the Journal of Applied Physiology is the Analysis of tissue and arterial blood temperatures in the resting human forearm by Harry H. Pennes, which appeared in Volume 1, No. 2, published in August, 1948. Thus begins Prof. Wissler, his 1998 revisit [...]... Read more »
PENNES HH. (1948) Analysis of tissue and arterial blood temperatures in the resting human forearm. Journal of applied physiology, 1(2), 93-122. PMID: 18887578
Decline in hiking and backpacking could hurt conservation donations
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Zaradic, P., Pergams, O., & Kareiva, P. (2009) The Impact of Nature Experience on Willingness to Support Conservation. PLoS ONE, 4(10). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007367
At almost any spot on the globe, there are species present that are not native to that locale, having been transported by human activities. Whether and how exotic species impact communities is a multifaceted problem that requires understanding the multitude of direct and indirect species interactions that occur. In a paper published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society, B, Montserrat Vila and colleagues asked if exotic plants where integrated into plant-pollinator networks, and whether this integration had any observable impacts on these networks. This is an important question, as most ecological theory predicts that plant-pollinator networks are actually quite resilient to perturbations since most associations tend to be between generalists as opposed to the more susceptible specialists.They studied invaded plant communities across Europe, observing pollinator visits to flowers in multiple 50 x 50 m plots. They calculated connectance as the number of interactions standardized by network size. They showed that exotics fully integrated into plant-pollinator networks. Exotic species accounted for 42% of all pollinator visits and 24% of all network connections -a testament to the overall abundance of exotics in many communities. However, these exotics did not affect overall changes in network connectedness, revealing that these networks are quite robust to invasions.That said, researchers must now ask if this is true in networks that do contain high numbers of specialists (e.g., orchids) or if the relative few specialists in generalist-dominated systems are more susceptible to changes from exotics.Vila, M., Bartomeus, I., Dietzsch, A., Petanidou, T., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Stout, J., & Tscheulin, T. (2009). Invasive plant integration into native plant-pollinator networks across Europe Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 276 (1674), 3887-3893 DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2009.1076... Read more »
Vila, M., Bartomeus, I., Dietzsch, A., Petanidou, T., Steffan-Dewenter, I., Stout, J., & Tscheulin, T. (2009) Invasive plant integration into native plant-pollinator networks across Europe. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 276(1674), 3887-3893. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2009.1076
How did Komodo dragons evolve to be the world's biggest lizards?
The story goes that cartographers would write, “Here be dragons,” on the places of the map where they had no information. This would only be true in a few areas of the world, namely a few islands in the south Pacific, where Komodo dragons live.
As I talked about in an earlier post, weird things happen to the size of species on islands. Big species get small. Small species get big.
And if there’s one thing that people know about Komodo dragons, it’s that they’re big. It wouldn’t surprise me if Komodo dragons feature on a Trivial Pursuit card somewhere: “What is the largest lizard in the world?” They are the biggest, which means they’re the sort of animal that most people know about, so interested are we with extremes, particularly large extremes. Yet despite this, Komodo dragons were featured on the cover of Last Chance to See by Douglas Adams and Mark Carwadine as an endangered species.
Are all these things – living on islands, the large size, the small range the animals occupy – all connected somehow? That is, did Komodo dragons start out as Komodo wyverns (small dragons) and evolve large size because they were on these small islands? Alternately, did Komodo dragons evolve from “Widely distributed South Pacific” dragons, meaning they were just big from the start?... Read more »
Hocknull, S., Piper, P., van den Bergh, G., Due, R., Morwood, M., & Kurniawan, I. (2009) Dragon's Paradise Lost: Palaeobiogeography, Evolution and Extinction of the Largest-Ever Terrestrial Lizards (Varanidae). PLoS ONE, 4(9). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0007241
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Thompson, M., Schwager, S., Payne, K., & Turkalo, A. (2009) Acoustic estimation of wildlife abundance: methodology for vocal mammals in forested habitats. African Journal of Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2028.2009.01161.x
A number of mass extinctions punctuate the fossil record, dealing a sharp blow to life on Earth. The best known (although not the biggest) is the one that did for the dinosaurs, some 65 million years ago. Unlike some mass extinctions, there’s at least one smoking gun: a damn great rock crashed into the planet, [...]... Read more »
Sepulveda, J., Wendler, J., Summons, R., & Hinrichs, K. (2009) Rapid Resurgence of Marine Productivity After the Cretaceous-Paleogene Mass Extinction. Science, 326(5949), 129-132. DOI: 10.1126/science.1176233
In recent times, genetic technology has progressed sufficiently to elucidate upon some of the questions normally preserved for archaeologists. One such question concerns the fate of a group of hominins that roamed Europe and East Asia for at least 250,000 years. During this time, this species adapted and endured some of the harshest environments on [...]... Read more »
Blum MG, & Rosenberg NA. (2007) Estimating the number of ancestral lineages using a maximum-likelihood method based on rejection sampling. Genetics, 176(3), 1741-57. PMID: 17435232
Green, R., Malaspinas, A., Krause, J., Briggs, A., Johnson, P., Uhler, C., Meyer, M., Good, J., Maricic, T., & Stenzel, U. (2008) A Complete Neandertal Mitochondrial Genome Sequence Determined by High-Throughput Sequencing. Cell, 134(3), 416-426. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2008.06.021
Genetic tests pin down origins of island-hopping rodents
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Russell, J., Miller, S., Harper, G., MacInnes, H., Wylie, M., & Fewster, R. (2009) Survivors or reinvaders? Using genetic assignment to identify invasive pests following eradication. Biological Invasions. DOI: 10.1007/s10530-009-9586-1
Antibodies produced by infection with a virus, or after immunization with viral vaccines, are effective at preventing viral disease. However humans and higher primates contains “natural antibodies” which are present in serum before viral infection. Natural antibodies can activate the classical complement pathway leading to lysis of enveloped virus particles long before the adaptive immune response is activated.... Read more »
Takeuchi Y, Liong SH, Bieniasz PD, Jäger U, Porter CD, Friedman T, McClure MO, & Weiss RA. (1997) Sensitization of rhabdo-, lenti-, and spumaviruses to human serum by galactosyl(alpha1-3)galactosylation. Journal of virology, 71(8), 6174-8. PMID: 9223512
Ochsenbein AF, Fehr T, Lutz C, Suter M, Brombacher F, Hengartner H, & Zinkernagel RM. (1999) Control of early viral and bacterial distribution and disease by natural antibodies. Science (New York, N.Y.), 286(5447), 2156-9. PMID: 10591647
...At any rate - despite the renovations pictured above - beavers (Caster canadenis) don’t have quite the impact on the landscape down here in the southeastern United States as they do in more northern regions of the Americas. A recent study published to The American Midland Naturalist examined the affects...... Read more »
Brzyski, J., & Schulte, B. (2009) Beaver (Castor canadensis) Impacts on Herbaceous and Woody Vegetation in Southeastern Georgia. The American Midland Naturalist, 162(1), 74-86. DOI: 10.1674/0003-0031-162.1.74
Image via Wikipedia There has been a lot of interest lately in the PI3K and MEK pathways as well as RAS inhibition, so it was it particularly apt to spot a recent paper in Cancer Research yesterday and get an...... Read more »
Wee, S., Jagani, Z., Xiang, K., Loo, A., Dorsch, M., Yao, Y., Sellers, W., Lengauer, C., & Stegmeier, F. (2009) PI3K Pathway Activation Mediates Resistance to MEK Inhibitors in KRAS Mutant Cancers. Cancer Research, 69(10), 4286-4293. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-4765
Wilhelm SM, Carter C, Tang L, Wilkie D, McNabola A, Rong H, Chen C, Zhang X, Vincent P, McHugh M.... (2004) BAY 43-9006 exhibits broad spectrum oral antitumor activity and targets the RAF/MEK/ERK pathway and receptor tyrosine kinases involved in tumor progression and angiogenesis. Cancer research, 64(19), 7099-109. PMID: 15466206
Restoring historical flows to most dammed rivers is unlikely. But a new study shows the promise of a downscaled approach...read more... Read more »
Hall, A., Rood, S., & Higgins, P. (2009) Resizing a River: A Downscaled, Seasonal Flow Regime Promotes Riparian Restoration. Restoration Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/j.1526-100X.2009.00581.x
A study tests a new method for selecting the highest priority areas in the watershed for conservation buffer zones...read more... Read more »
Qiu, Z. (2009) Assessing Critical Source Areas in Watersheds for Conservation Buffer Planning and Riparian Restoration. Environmental Management. DOI: 10.1007/s00267-009-9380-y
I’m going to do a double review here of two papers currently online in Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. I’m lumping them together because they both more or less challenge the pervasive conservation/restoration paradigm that connectivity is the key to reducing extinction risk. It’s just interesting (and slightly amusing) that the two [...]... Read more »
Franzen, M., & Nilsson, S. (2009) Both population size and patch quality affect local extinctions and colonizations. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2009.1584
Griffen, B., & Drake, J. (2009) Environment, but not migration rate, influences extinction risk in experimental metapopulations. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2009.1153
... you can sleep easier tonight. Knuckle cracking does not lead to arthritis. So why would I bother to blog about this today? For one simple reason. After a 50 year, single participant study, results have demonstrated that habitual knuckle cracking does not lead to arthritis. This research has advanced the field so much that it was given a 2009 Ig Nobel award. The original research (see citation below) was published in 1998. A link directly to the Letter to the Editor of the journal Arthritis and Rheumatism can be found here (PDF, 2 pages).Donald Unger, an allergist in Thousand Oaks, California, earned the medicine prize for addressing another timeless question: does cracking knuckles really cause arthritis, as his mother warned him it would? As a child, he naturally thought his mother omniscient, but as a teenager he learned about science and started questioning received wisdom of this kind.To resolve the issue Unger embarked on a long-term controlled experiment, and began cracking the knuckles on his left hand twice a day, but not those on his right (Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol 41, p 949). He has done so for more than 60 years, and never suffered arthritis in either hand. "Mother, you were wrong," he says, looking heavenwards. What he now wants to know is: "Was it really necessary for me to eat my broccoli?"In the reported "study" the following was observed:For 50 years, the author cracked the knuckles of his left hand at least twice a day, leaving those on the right as a control. Thus, the knuckles on the left were cracked at least 36,500 times, while those on the right cracked rarely and spontaneously. At the end of the 50 years, the hands were compared for the presence of arthritis.There was no arthritis in either hand, and no apparent differences between the two hands.Therefore, rest assured knuckle crackers (of whom I am one), your habit is not detrimental.ReferenceUnger DL (1998). Does knuckle cracking lead to arthritis of the fingers? Arthritis and rheumatism, 41 (5), 949-50 PMID: 9588755... Read more »
Unger DL. (1998) Does knuckle cracking lead to arthritis of the fingers?. Arthritis and rheumatism, 41(5), 949-50. PMID: 9588755
By Mark Martin
When I recently attended the Sixth International Symbiosis Society Congress in Madison, Wisconsin, I was awed by the fascinating forms that symbiotic relationships take among diverse organisms. One talk that particularly intrigued me was from the laboratory of Marilyn Roossinck LINK 1 of the Samuel Roberts Nobel Foundation in Oklahoma, which described the mutualistic relationship between a virus, an endophytic fungus, a monocot, and elevated temperatures in geothermal soils. It also made me consider how readily we seem to associate the word "virus" with pathogenic associations, when nature is often far more subtle when it comes to mutualistic partnerships.
The story began in 2002 when it was found that a type of grass growing in the geothermal zones of Yellowstone National Park—panic grass, Dichanthelium lanuginosum LINK 2—was able to survive intermittent high temperatures in geothermal soils (up to 65 °C.) due to its association with an endophytic fungus, Curvularia protuberata LINK 3. The fungus is essential to the plant's ability to tolerate temperatures that are lethal to the non-colonized plant. Panic grass, incidentally, has nothing to do with botanical phobias; instead, the name LINK 13 derives from the Latin panicum, referring to foxtail millet.
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Marquez, L., Redman, R., Rodriguez, R., & Roossinck, M. (2007) A Virus in a Fungus in a Plant: Three-Way Symbiosis Required for Thermal Tolerance. Science, 315(5811), 513-515. DOI: 10.1126/science.1136237
Around 2600 years ago in Egypt, a woman called Irtyersenu died. She was mummified and buried at the necropolis at Thebes, where she remained for over two millennia before being unearthed in 1819. Her well-preserved body was brought to the British Museum where it was examined by the physician and obstetrician Augustus Bozzi Granville. It was the first ever medical autopsy of an Egyptian mummy and Granville presented his results to the Royal Society in 1825. His conclusion: Ityersenu died of ovarian cancer.
The mummification techniques of ancient Egypt were so good that Irtyersenu's corpse still retained many soft tissues, and most of her organs intact. In particular, an unusual mass around her right ovary caught Granville's attention. He interpreted it as a cancer and the cause of the lady's death. But according to later studies, the tumour was a benign one, far from the fatal affliction that Granville envisaged.
Some scientists have since blamed malaria for Irtyersenu's death but Helen Donoghue from University College London believes she has uncovered the true culprit - tuberculosis.
It's clear that tuberculosis was a big killer of ancient Egyptians. Scientists have found DNA from Mycoplasma tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes the disease, in several mummies from both genders and all social circles. Donoghue managed to do the same for samples of Ityersenu's lung, gall bladder and other tissues.
Read the rest of this post... | Read the comments on this post...
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Donoghue, H., Lee, O., Minnikin, D., Besra, G., Taylor, J., & Spigelman, M. (2009) Tuberculosis in Dr Granville's mummy: a molecular re-examination of the earliest known Egyptian mummy to be scientifically examined and given a medical diagnosis. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2009.1484
“Progress” and “evolution” are inextricably linked in many people’s minds. Evolution is always moving forward. From molecules to cells to invertebrates to vertebrates; from fish to reptiles to mammals to us. There’s a lot wrong with those ideas, but the underlying question is worth asking: Can organisms go back the way they came?
Louis Dollo thought not. He suggested that once a feature was lost in a lineage, it could never be regained. Enough people agreed with this suggestion that it became known as “Dollo’s Law.” A couple of recent papers address whether Dollo’s suggestion was a correct one.
The first paper, by Lynch and Wagner, tests Dollo’s Law at the organismal level. It follows previous suggestions that reptiles have flip-flopping between egg-bearing and live birth. These were only suggestive, because scenarios with no reversals were just about as likely as those without.The boa family Boidae may provide a strong test of whether evolutionary zig-zagging occurred with egg-bearing. Boas generally give birth to live young, but two do not.It is possible that these egg-layers were the earliest species to branch off from the rest of the family, which then evolved live-birth, but if so, there should be a raft of other features marking them as very divergent from all other boas.As is typical now, most of the features examined are DNA. Much of this paper details relationships between many genera of boas, with the specific question about egg-laying being a rather small cookie in what is obviously a much bigger systematic meal. Disappointingly, one of the two-egg-laying boas, Eyrx muelleri (pictured), is not included in this analysis.The genus Eryx is not an early branch within the boa family, however. The one egg-laying species examined here, Eryx jayakari, is nestled firmly in the middle of the boa family tree, which strongly indicates that its ancestors were live-bearing boas.Showing that reversals happened does not answer why or how they happened. Lynch and Wagner do discuss some of the selective pressures that may have led to these particular species re-evolving egg-laying. Both live in desert environments, which could be a key factor in what led to the loss of live birth.A major question for understanding reversals is just how similar the re-evolved feature is to the original. To qualify as a true reversal, the similarities would have to be very extensive and detailed. Otherwise, this may not be a case of reversal, but of convergence instead. The authors note that other snakes have a small tooth to push through the eggs when hatching, but hatchlings in these two boa species do not, indicating that the boas have not wound the clock back entirely or exactly.Understanding whether this is reversal rather than convergence will probably require doing detailed anatomy of the reproductive organs of a lot of snakes. DNA is great for understanding the relationships between species, but it will probably only be by looking closely at the actual organisms that we will be able to understand the chain of events that might lead groups back the way they came.A second paper, by Bridgham and collegues, argues that at the level of molecules, Dollo may have been on the money. They ran models of the evolution of a molecular that binds to the hormone cortisol. According to their model, the cortisol receptor was derived from receptors that bound to a much wider range of molecules. The new receptor, then, is a specialization of generalists.When they took the modern receptor, and experimentally changed several key mutations back to the predicted ancestral state, they got a molecule that bound to... nothing. Bridgham and company’s explanation is that in addition to the key mutations that made the modern receptor possible, there were other changes in the rest of the molecule that. These “background” changes were not obviously related to the molecule’s ability to bind to the hormone, but, in the context of a long, complex molecule where the parts interact to give the receptor it shape, those changes were enough to prevent the experimentally modified receptor to bind to hormones.Interestingly, the authors stress that these background changes make it unlikely for the molecule to revert back to its ancestral condition... but then they proceed to do it (their Figure 3a). Sure, the chain of events needed to revert the molecule back is longer and less probable. The ratchet they propose for molecular evolution may be a slightly slippery one.In a sense, both papers show that the argument about evolutionary reversal is not whether it is possible or impossible. The question is not whether reversals happen, but how often they happen. Reversals could be rare. And the frequency of reversal may differ depending on what level of organization you’re looking at. It could be easier in whole organisms than in molecules, or vice versa.This post is part of National Evolutionary Synthesis Center (NESCENT) competition for the Science Online 2010 conference.ReferencesBridgham, J., Ortlund, E., & Thornton, J. (2009). An epistatic ratchet constrains the direction of glucocorticoid receptor evolution Nature, 461 (7263), 515-519 DOI: 10.1038/nature08249Lynch, V., & Wagner, G. (2009). Did egg-laying boas break Dollo's Law? Phylogenetic evidence for reversal to oviparity in sand boas (Eryx: Boidae) Evolution DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2009.00790.xPicture from here.... Read more »
Bridgham, J., Ortlund, E., & Thornton, J. (2009) An epistatic ratchet constrains the direction of glucocorticoid receptor evolution. Nature, 461(7263), 515-519. DOI: 10.1038/nature08249
Lynch, V., & Wagner, G. (2009) Did egg-laying boas break Dollo's Law? Phylogenetic evidence for reversal to oviparity in sand boas (Eryx: Boidae). Evolution. DOI: 10.1111/j.1558-5646.2009.00790.x
I'm going to be lazy and leech off the Mystery Micrograph again. None of you saner people (non-protistgeeks) seem to have taken advantage of the massive handicap, and subsequent hint. Seriously, type in "testate amoebae" in Google image search, and it's on the first page! Perhaps I should do a tutorial on some methods of attacking those mystery images...Quite shockingly(not!), Opisthokont got the last one. I agree with his statement that that was like shooting fish in a barrel, but easier since fish are actually difficult to shoot at from air due to refraction, etc. The organism behind the shell in the mystery micrograph was...Euglypha!(Wikipedia; Euglyphid test)Euglypha morphologically belongs to the polyphyletic 'testate amoebae', but is phylogenetically quite distant from your garden variety test-building amoebozoans, like Arcella and Difflugia. Euglyphids are cercozoan rhizarians. Since those words likely mean nothing to the vast majority of the human population, here's a 'map' of Rhizaria in my Coelodiceras (Phaeodaria) post, and an overall tree of eukaryotes can be found here. They can often be found in moss samples, but are also present in soil and freshwater environments. Their test scales are made of silica, and preserve quite decently as fossils. Speaking of which, I apparently may have a slight fetish for unicellular microfossils:(Javaux 2007 in Eukaryotic Membranes and Cytoskeleton: Origins and Evolution ed. Jékely; 10 - fossil; 11 - modern Euglyphid; 12 - VSM - 'vase-shaped microfossil' (micropaleontological equivalent of mycologists' LBM - 'little brown mushroom' ?) with holes possibly caused by predation; fossils ~750My old)Fast forward 750My back to the present, the modern euglyphids are about as diverse as they are understudied:(Lara et al. 2007 Protist; tree of Euglyphids)Images of Euglyphid diversity, shamelessly stolen from the same paper:(Lara et al. 2007 Protist; Euglyphid SEMs, scalebar 50um except for E,F,H, where it's 10um. A - Assulina; B- Placocista; C,D - Euglypha ciliata & compressa; E - Corythion; F - Trinema; H,G - Euglypha penardi)Unfortunately, finding nice plates full of euglyphids is rather difficult, since until quite recently, they were lumped together with testate Amoebozoans. Also, since euglyphids fossilise, they seem to be mostly studied by paleontologists, who seem to have an 'interesting' relationship with systematics of the living. Where 'interesting' entails being at least a couple decades out of date. Well, they are millions of years in the past...Paulinella can be argued to be particularly interesting - it is a case of an independent event of primary plastid endosymbiosis. Why this is interesting can be seen in this really nice overview:(Keeling 2oo4 Am J Bot (free access); overview of plastid endosymbiosis - the 'Pacmen' are pretty awesome! Interestingly, if the Chromalveolate Hypothesis is correct, this would mean that Paulinella already had a plastid in its ancient past. However, it would've been a red algal plastid of a different cyanobacterial origin, not a Synechococcus-derived cyanelle)Cyanelles are photosynthetic endosymbionts/organelles - they differ from plastids by retaining some prokaryotic features like the peptidoglycan wall. Among the conventional plastid-bearing algae, glaucophytes carry cyanelles from the primary cyanobacterial endosymbiotic event which eventually led to plant chloroplasts and most algal plastids. In sequence comparisons, Paulinella cyanelles branch with the cyanobacterium Synechococcus, and retain much of the gene order, suggesting a fairly recent endosymbiosis with Synechococcus (... Read more »
BODYL, A., MACKIEWICZ, P., & STILLER, J. (2007) The intracellular cyanobacteria of Paulinella chromatophora: endosymbionts or organelles?. Trends in Microbiology, 15(7), 295-296. DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2007.05.002
Keeling, P. (2004) Diversity and evolutionary history of plastids and their hosts. American Journal of Botany, 91(10), 1481-1493. DOI: 10.3732/ajb.91.10.1481
LARA, E., HEGER, T., MITCHELL, E., MEISTERFELD, R., & EKELUND, F. (2007) SSU rRNA Reveals a Sequential Increase in Shell Complexity Among the Euglyphid Testate Amoebae (Rhizaria: Euglyphida). Protist, 158(2), 229-237. DOI: 10.1016/j.protis.2006.11.006
NOWACK, E., MELKONIAN, M., & GLOCKNER, G. (2008) Chromatophore Genome Sequence of Paulinella Sheds Light on Acquisition of Photosynthesis by Eukaryotes. Current Biology, 18(6), 410-418. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2008.02.051
THEISSEN, U., & MARTIN, W. (2006) The difference between organelles and endosymbionts. Current Biology, 16(24). DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2006.11.020
Yoon, H., Reyes-Prieto, A., Melkonian, M., & Bhattacharya, D. (2006) Minimal plastid genome evolution in the Paulinella endosymbiont. Current Biology, 16(17). DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2006.08.018
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