I'm a great believer in balance when it comes to this blog and its content. As enthusiastic as I might be about a particular topic or topics, I don't want to lose sight of the fact that peer-reviewed science is a messy business and often filled with contrary findings.With 'contrary' in mind, I want to talk today about a paper by Amy Romijn and colleagues  detailing the results of a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of a probiotic mix which contained "freeze-dried L. helv........ Read more »
Romijn AR, Rucklidge JJ, Kuijer RG, & Frampton C. (2017) A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Lactobacillus helveticus and Bifidobacterium longum for the symptoms of depression. The Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry, 2147483647. PMID: 28068788
The European Association of Urology (EAU) Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) guidelines panel has recently updated its recommendation on adjuvant therapy with sunitinib in non-metastatic RCC after surgical tumour removal (Bex et al., 2016). These clinical guidelines provide urologists with evidence-based information and recommendations for the management of RCC and the panel includes urological surgeons, oncologists, pathologists, radiologists and patient advocates. Based on the conflicting results of t........ Read more »
Bex A, Albiges L, Ljungberg B, Bensalah K, Dabestani S, Giles RH, Hofmann F, Hora M, Kuczyk MA, Lam TB.... (2016) Updated European Association of Urology Guidelines Regarding Adjuvant Therapy for Renal Cell Carcinoma. European urology. PMID: 27986369
Meric-Bernstam, F., Tannir, N., Harding, J., Voss, M., Mier, J., DeMichele, A., Munster, P., Patel, M., Iliopoulos, O., Owonikoko, T.... (2016) Phase 1 study of CB-839, a small molecule inhibitor of glutaminase, in combination with everolimus in patients (pts) with clear cell and papillary renal cell cancer (RCC). European Journal of Cancer. DOI: 10.1016/S0959-8049(16)32626-0
In today's post I want to draw your attention to the findings reported by Diana Ohanian and colleagues  (open-access available here) talking about "the use of machine learning to further explore the unique nature"of various conditions/labels including those typically headed under the label of chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME).Including one 'Jason LA' on the authorship list, researchers set about looking at "what key symptoms differentiate Myalgic Encephalomyelitis ........ Read more »
Ohanian D, Brown A, Sunnquist M, Furst J, Nicholson L, Klebek L, & Jason LA. (2016) Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis. Neurology (E-Cronicon), 4(2), 41-45. PMID: 28066845
Bending Stiffness of Running Shoes and Running Energetics... Read more »
Oh, K., & Park, S. (2017) The bending stiffness of shoes is beneficial to running energetics if it does not disturb the natural MTP joint flexion. Journal of Biomechanics. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2017.01.014
"A more homogeneous subgroup with regression between 18 and 36 months (n = 48) had higher rates of intellectual disability, epilepsy, and special education, more socially restrictive educational settings, and more severe ASD [autism spectrum disorder] communication deficits and schizophrenia spectrum symptoms than non-regressed youth (n = 136)."So said the findings reported by Kenneth Gadow and colleagues  taking on one of the more important issues in relation to autism: dev........ Read more »
Gadow KD, Perlman G, & Weber RJ. (2017) Parent-Reported Developmental Regression in Autism: Epilepsy, IQ, Schizophrenia Spectrum Symptoms, and Special Education. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. PMID: 28074354
An athlete with a recent concussion has altered lower extremity stiffness at the leg, hip, and knee, which could increase their risk for musculoskeletal injury.... Read more »
Dubose DF, Herman DC, Jones DL, Tillman SM, Clugston JR, Pass A, Hernandez JA, Vasilopoulos T, Horodyski M, & Chmielewski TL. (2017) Lower Extremity Stiffness Changes after Concussion in Collegiate Football Players. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 49(1), 167-172. PMID: 27501359
"Adolescents with ASD [autism spectrum disorder] spent less time in MVPA [moderate and vigorous physical activity] compared to TD [typically developing] adolescents (29 min/day vs. 50 min/day, p < 0.001) and fewer met the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (14 vs. 29%, p > 0.05)."So said the study results published by Heidi Stanish and colleagues  adding yet more to another growth autism research area - physical activity and exercise - ........ Read more »
Stanish, H., Curtin, C., Must, A., Phillips, S., Maslin, M., & Bandini, L. (2017) Physical Activity Levels, Frequency, and Type Among Adolescents with and Without Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. DOI: 10.1007/s10803-016-3001-4
"Vitamin D treatment significantly improved fatigue in otherwise healthy persons with vitamin D deficiency."Supplementation details, described in the paper by Albina Nowak and colleagues  (open-access available here), were a single dose of 100,000 IU [international units] of vitamin D or a placebo (mannitol) administered to 120 adult participants who presented with "fatigue and vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D < 20 μg/L)." This was a double-blind trial and self-perceived fatigue ........ Read more »
Nowak A, Boesch L, Andres E, Battegay E, Hornemann T, Schmid C, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Suter PM, & Krayenbuehl PA. (2016) Effect of vitamin D3 on self-perceived fatigue: A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial. Medicine, 95(52). PMID: 28033244
The move of the Australian government to measure the impact of university research on society introduces many new challenges that were not previously relevant when evaluation focused solely on academic merit. … Read More →... Read more »
Gunn, A., & Mintrom, M. (2016) Higher Education Policy Change in Europe: Academic Research Funding and the Impact Agenda. European Education, 48(4), 241-257. DOI: 10.1080/10564934.2016.1237703
Morris ZS, Wooding S, & Grant J. (2011) The answer is 17 years, what is the question: understanding time lags in translational research. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 104(12), 510-20. PMID: 22179294
"Rates of ASD [autism spectrum disorder] and ASD traits are elevated in a psychosis population."The paper by Debbie Kincaid and colleagues  provides yet more [short] blogging material pertinent to the increasing interest in how psychosis may be yet another comorbidity over-represented when it comes to autism (see here) and vice-versa. I know this is another topic that has to be treated with some caution in terms of concepts like stigma but more discussions - science discussions........ Read more »
Kincaid, D., Doris, M., Shannon, C., & Mulholland, C. (2017) What is the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder and ASD traits in psychosis? A systematic review. Psychiatry Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.01.017
The bacterium, Deinococcus radiodurans, is thought to be discovered as a contaminant in radiation-sterilized cans in 1960s. The name of the bacterium comes from the Ancient Greek, i.e. deinos and kokkos meaning “terrible grain/berry”, and the Latin language, i.e. radius and durare, meaning “radiation surviving”. The bacterium is also known as Conan the Bacterium.
Deinococcus radiodurans is a comparatively larger bacterium having spherical shape. It is a red-pigmented b........ Read more »
Krisko, A., & Radman, M. (2013) Biology of Extreme Radiation Resistance: The Way of Deinococcus radiodurans. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology, 5(7). DOI: 10.1101/cshperspect.a012765
"As compared with 54 typically developing controls, we found no evidence of differences in the blood profile of immune mediators supportive of active systemic inflammation mechanisms in participants with autism."That was the unexpected research bottom-line published by Carlos Pardo and colleagues  (open-access) examining whether various immune-related chemicals - "cytokines, chemokines, or growth factors in serum and cerebrospinal fluid" - might be linked to autism following longitudinal........ Read more »
Pardo, C., Farmer, C., Thurm, A., Shebl, F., Ilieva, J., Kalra, S., & Swedo, S. (2017) Serum and cerebrospinal fluid immune mediators in children with autistic disorder: a longitudinal study. Molecular Autism, 8(1). DOI: 10.1186/s13229-016-0115-7
Birt-Hogg-Dubé (BHD) syndrome is a rare disorder caused by mutations in FLCN and associated with increased risk of kidney cancer. It has been shown that FLCN-interacting protein 1 and 2 (FNIP1 and FNIP2) double knockout mice, like the FLCN knockout mice, develop renal carcinoma (Hasumi et al., 2015). However, the molecular mechanisms linking FNIP and FLCN remain unknown. In their new study, Nagashima et al. (2016) show that FNIP2 undergoes proteasome-dependent degradation via β-TRCP ........ Read more »
Nagashima K, Fukushima H, Shimizu K, Yamada A, Hidaka M, Hasumi H, Ikebe T, Fukumoto S, Okabe K, & Inuzuka H. (2016) Nutrient-induced FNIP degradation by SCFβ-TRCP regulates FLCN complex localization and promotes renal cancer progression. Oncotarget. PMID: 28039480
"Our data suggest that exercise is more effective than control at reducing anxiety symptoms."So said the meta-analysis published by Brendan Stubbs and colleagues  who surveyed the peer-reviewed literature "investigating the benefits of exercise compared to usual treatment or control conditions in people with an anxiety and/or stress-related disorders." From the 6 randomised, controlled trials found "from inception until December 2015" exercise (various types of exercise regime) did seem to ha........ Read more »
Stubbs, B., Vancampfort, D., Rosenbaum, S., Firth, J., Cosco, T., Veronese, N., Salum, G., & Schuch, F. (2017) An examination of the anxiolytic effects of exercise for people with anxiety and stress-related disorders: A meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.12.020
"However, patients admitted on five day/number combinations were 20-30% more likely to survive at 13 years. These findings could be explained by subgroup analysis inflation of the type I error, although supernatural causes merit further investigation."
No. Supernatural causes do not merit further investigation, at least, not based on anything in this paper.
The authors used Friday the 13th as their "normal" date for comparison with every other date, but the outcomes ........ Read more »
Protty, M., Jaafar, M., Hannoodee, S., & Freeman, P. (2016) Acute coronary syndrome on Friday the 13th: a case for re-organising services?. The Medical Journal of Australia, 205(11), 523-525. DOI: 10.5694/mja16.00870
"Fifteen studies suggest a higher prevalence rate of ASDs [autism spectrum disorder] among children of immigrants in comparison to native children."Those fifteen studies formed a large part of the seventeen studies included in the review by Rafal Kawa and colleagues  who set out to look at the collected peer-reviewed literature on the topic of the "prevalence and risk for ASD in Europe among immigrants and ethnic minorities." Carried out as part of a European Union (EU) initiative t........ Read more »
Kawa R, Saemundsen E, Lóa Jónsdóttir S, Hellendoorn A, Lemcke S, Canal-Bedia R, García-Primo P, & Moilanen I. (2016) European studies on prevalence and risk of autism spectrum disorders according to immigrant status-a review. European journal of public health. PMID: 28013245
The placenta is a unique organ as it is an extra-embryonic tissue primarily regulated by the fetal genome and shared between mother and fetus. However, it is a transient organ that is only needed throughout pregnancy and gestation and then is discarded after delivery. The essential role of the placenta in pregnancy is unquestionable but, surprisingly, as highlighted by the NIH NICHD Human Placenta Project (https://www.nichd.nih.gov/research/HPP/Pages/default.aspx), it is the human organ we know ........ Read more »
Mayne BT, Leemaqz SY, Smith AK, Breen J, Roberts CT, & Bianco-Miotto T. (2016) Accelerated placental aging in early onset preeclampsia pregnancies identified by DNA methylation. Epigenomics. PMID: 27894195
Bianco-Miotto T, Mayne BT, Buckberry S, Breen J, Rodriguez Lopez CM, & Roberts CT. (2016) Recent progress towards understanding the role of DNA methylation in human placental development. Reproduction (Cambridge, England), 152(1). PMID: 27026712
Ehrlich M, Gama-Sosa MA, Huang LH, Midgett RM, Kuo KC, McCune RA, & Gehrke C. (1982) Amount and distribution of 5-methylcytosine in human DNA from different types of tissues of cells. Nucleic acids research, 10(8), 2709-21. PMID: 7079182
Fuke C, Shimabukuro M, Petronis A, Sugimoto J, Oda T, Miura K, Miyazaki T, Ogura C, Okazaki Y, & Jinno Y. (2004) Age related changes in 5-methylcytosine content in human peripheral leukocytes and placentas: an HPLC-based study. Annals of human genetics, 68(Pt 3), 196-204. PMID: 15180700
Novakovic B, Yuen RK, Gordon L, Penaherrera MS, Sharkey A, Moffett A, Craig JM, Robinson WP, & Saffery R. (2011) Evidence for widespread changes in promoter methylation profile in human placenta in response to increasing gestational age and environmental/stochastic factors. BMC genomics, 529. PMID: 22032438
Price EM, Cotton AM, Peñaherrera MS, McFadden DE, Kobor MS, & Robinson W. (2012) Different measures of "genome-wide" DNA methylation exhibit unique properties in placental and somatic tissues. Epigenetics, 7(6), 652-63. PMID: 22531475
Schroeder DI, Blair JD, Lott P, Yu HO, Hong D, Crary F, Ashwood P, Walker C, Korf I, Robinson WP.... (2013) The human placenta methylome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(15), 6037-42. PMID: 23530188
Fogarty NM, Burton GJ, & Ferguson-Smith AC. (2015) Different epigenetic states define syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast nuclei in the trophoblast of the human placenta. Placenta, 36(8), 796-802. PMID: 26008948
Marioni RE, Shah S, McRae AF, Chen BH, Colicino E, Harris SE, Gibson J, Henders AK, Redmond P, Cox SR.... (2015) DNA methylation age of blood predicts all-cause mortality in later life. Genome biology, 25. PMID: 25633388
There is limited evidence that poor movement quality is associated with a greater risk of lower extremity injury in athletic and military/first-responder populations.... Read more »
Whittaker JL, Booysen N, de la Motte S, Dennett L, Lewis CL, Wilson D, McKay C, Warner M, Padua D, Emery CA.... (2016) Predicting sport and occupational lower extremity injury risk through movement quality screening: a systematic review. British journal of sports medicine. PMID: 27935483
The quote making up the title of this post comes from the case report described by Albino J Oliveira-Maia and colleagues  talking yet again about how coeliac disease - the archetypal autoimmune condition where dietary gluten is the baddie - may have effects well beyond just the physical.Describing the experiences of a woman who was admitted to a psychiatry inpatient unit on the basis of "suicidal behaviours" who also "developed an agitated catatonic state", a mix of "antidepressants, anx........ Read more »
Oliveira-Maia AJ, Andrade I, & Barahona-Corrêa JB. (2016) Case of coeliac disease presenting in the psychiatry ward. BMJ case reports. PMID: 28003229
Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance... Read more »
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