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  • July 8, 2015
  • 04:57 PM
  • 126 views

Study shows long-term effects of type 2 diabetes on the brain, thinking

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

In just two years, people with type 2 diabetes experienced negative changes in their ability to regulate blood flow in the brain, which was associated with lower scores on tests of cognition skills and their ability to perform their daily activities, according to a new study.... Read more »

Chen-Chih Chung, MD,, Daniela Pimentel, MD,, Azizah J. Jor'dan, PhD,, Ying Hao, PhD, William Milberg, PhD, & Vera Novak, MD, PhD. (2015) Inflammation-associated declines in cerebral vasoreactivity and cognition in type 2 diabetes. Neurology . info:/10.1212/WNL.0000000000001820

  • July 8, 2015
  • 03:19 PM
  • 107 views

How the tumor escapes the immune response

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Natural killer cells of the immune system can fend off malignant lymphoma cells and thus are considered a promising therapeutic approach. However, in the direct vicinity of the tumor they lose their effect. Scientists have now elucidated which mechanisms block the natural killer cells and how this blockade could be lifted.... Read more »

Belting, L., Hömberg, N., Przewoznik, M., Brenner, C., Riedel, T., Flatley, A., Polić, B., Busch, D., Röcken, M., & Mocikat, R. (2015) Critical role of the NKG2D receptor for NK cell-mediated control and immune escape of B-cell lymphoma. European Journal of Immunology. DOI: 10.1002/eji.201445375  

  • July 8, 2015
  • 02:21 PM
  • 31 views

IVF: Single Cell Analysis Allows Extremely Early Prediction Of Embryo Abnormalities

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shawn L. Chavez, Ph.D Assistant Scientist/Professor Oregon National Primate Research Center OHSU | Oregon Health & Science University Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Chavez: This study builds upon a previous study also … Continue reading →
The post IVF: Single Cell Analysis Allows Extremely Early Prediction Of Embryo Abnormalities appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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Shawn L. Chavez, Ph.D, & Assistant Scientist/Professor. (2015) IVF: Single Cell Analysis Allows Extremely Early Prediction Of Embryo Abnormalities. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • July 8, 2015
  • 12:54 PM
  • 142 views

Brain Imaging and Alzheimer's Disease Prediction

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Enhanced early detection of risk for Alzheimer's dementia and other forms of dementia is key to prevention and early intervention.Brain imaging holds promise as a pre-clinical disease risk assessment tool in Alzeimer's dementia.Dementia risk has been linked to several brain imaging abnormalities found with magnetic resonance imaging. These abnormalities have included atrophy of the brain hippocampus, medial temporal lobe as well as white matter hyperintensities.A recent study from France examined whether brain MRI findings can improve Alzheimer's and other dementia prediction over conventional known risk factors.Here are the key elements of the design of this study:Subjects: French citizens 65 years and old living at home participating in a longitudinal study of dementia with interviews two, four, six and ten years after baseline interviewBrain imaging: 1.5 Tesla MRI with estimation of white matter lesion volume, hippocampal volume (right and left summed) and total brain volumeDementia diagnosis: all subjects screened at each interview, with targeted neuropsychological testing and neurologist consensus assessmentStandard dementia risk model variables: age, gender, education, smoking status, alcohol use, functional daily living skills, cognition screening tests, cardiovascular disease, diabetes status, systolic blood pressure and apolipoprotein epsilon 4 status.The research team found a statistically significant smaller hippocampal and total brain volume at baseline in those later developing dementia. White matter lesion scores showed a trend (p.076) with later dementia.However, adding the imaging data to the standard dementia risk model did not add statistically to the predictive power for all-cause dementia to the model.The baseline imaging in this study took place around the year 1999 to 2000. Since then, more specific brain imaging tools targeted towards Alzheimer's have emerged including amyloid plaque markers. These enhanced imaging tools may have better power at adding power to our prediction models.Readers with more interest in this research study can access the free full-text manuscript by clicking on the link in the citation below.Photo of meerkats from the Cincinnati Zoo are from the author's files.Follow the author on Twitter @WRY999Stephan BC, Tzourio C, Auriacombe S, Amieva H, Dufouil C, Alpérovitch A, & Kurth T (2015). Usefulness of data from magnetic resonance imaging to improve prediction of dementia: population based cohort study. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 350 PMID: 26099688... Read more »

  • July 8, 2015
  • 09:45 AM
  • 109 views

Video Tip of the Week: PhenomeCentral

by Mary in OpenHelix

Silos. This is a big problem for us with human genome data from individuals. We’re getting sequences, but they are locked up in various ways. David Haussler’s talk at the recent Global Alliance for Genomics and Health meeting (GA4GH) emphasized this barrier, and also talked about ways they are looking to work around the legal, […]... Read more »

Girdea, M., Dumitriu, S., Fiume, M., Bowdin, S., Boycott, K., Chénier, S., Chitayat, D., Faghfoury, H., Meyn, M., Ray, P.... (2013) PhenoTips: Patient Phenotyping Software for Clinical and Research Use. Human Mutation, 34(8), 1057-1065. DOI: 10.1002/humu.22347  

  • July 8, 2015
  • 09:32 AM
  • 90 views

Residents Participation In Neurosurgery Did Not 30-Day Outcomes

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Judy Huang, M.D. Professor of Neurosurgery Program Director, Neurosurgery Residency Program Fellowship Director, Cerebrovascular Neurosurgery Johns Hopkins Hospital Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Huang: Residents are medical … Continue reading →
The post Residents Participation In Neurosurgery Did Not 30-Day Outcomes appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
... Read more »

Judy Huang, M.D. Professor of Neurosurgery, Program Director, Neurosurgery Residency Program, Fellowship Director, Cerebrovascular Neurosurgery, & Johns Hopkins Hospital. (2015) Residents Participation In Neurosurgery Did Not 30-Day Outcomes. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • July 8, 2015
  • 09:08 AM
  • 97 views

Aspirin and Ibuprofen May Reduce Bowel Cancer Risk in Lynch Syndrome

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Aung Ko Win, MBBS MPH PhD Research Fellow NHMRC Early Career Clinical Research Fellow Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics Melbourne School of Population and Global Health The University of Melbourne VIC 3010 Australia Medical Research: What is the background … Continue reading →
The post Aspirin and Ibuprofen May Reduce Bowel Cancer Risk in Lynch Syndrome appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
... Read more »

Aung Ko Win, MBBS MPH PhD, Research Fellow, & NHMRC Early Career Clinical Research Fellow. (2015) Aspirin and Ibuprofen May Reduce Bowel Cancer Risk in Lynch Syndrome. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • July 8, 2015
  • 08:46 AM
  • 102 views

Hormonal and Reproductive Factors Influence Uterine Cancer Risk in Lynch Syndrome

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Aung Ko Win, MBBS MPH PhD Research Fellow NHMRC Early Career Clinical Research Fellow Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics Melbourne School of Population and Global Health The University of Melbourne VIC 3010 Australia Medical Research: What is the background … Continue reading →
The post Hormonal and Reproductive Factors Influence Uterine Cancer Risk in Lynch Syndrome appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
... Read more »

Aung Ko Win, MBBS MPH PhD, Research Fellow, & NHMRC Early Career Clinical Research Fellow. (2015) Hormonal and Reproductive Factors Influence Uterine Cancer Risk in Lynch Syndrome. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • July 8, 2015
  • 08:38 AM
  • 76 views

Endocrine Therapies for Young Breast Cancer Patients Can Cause Abrupt Menopause Symptoms

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Jürg Bernhard Ph.D. International Breast Cancer Study Group Coordinating Center and Bern University Hospital, Inselspital, Bern, Switzerland Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: In the combined analysis … Continue reading →
The post Endocrine Therapies for Young Breast Cancer Patients Can Cause Abrupt Menopause Symptoms appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
... Read more »

Dr. Jürg Bernhard Ph.D., & International Breast Cancer Study Group Coordinating Center and Bern University. (2015) Endocrine Therapies for Young Breast Cancer Patients Can Cause Abrupt Menopause Symptoms. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • July 8, 2015
  • 08:30 AM
  • 108 views

What the Heck Are Those Doing There?

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

The neuroendocrine system has lots of exceptions, and this includes the male testes. Just why are they housed outside the main body cavities where they are vulnerable to all sorts of dangers, including your siblings’ kicks? You may think you know, but you probably have only part of the answer. Why is one bigger than the other and why do some animals only have one? ... Read more »

Bogaert, A. (1997) Genital asymmetry in men. Human Reproduction, 12(1), 68-72. DOI: 10.1093/humrep/12.1.68  

  • July 8, 2015
  • 08:20 AM
  • 90 views

Brown Fat Transplants May One Day Cure Type I Diabetes

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Subhadra Gunawardana DVM, Ph.D Research Associate Professor Department of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics Vanderbilt University Medical Center Nashville, TN 37232 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: For many … Continue reading →
The post Brown Fat Transplants May One Day Cure Type I Diabetes appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
... Read more »

Subhadra Gunawardana DVM, Ph.D, & Research Associate Professor. (2015) Brown Fat Transplants May One Day Cure Type I Diabetes. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • July 8, 2015
  • 04:46 AM
  • 101 views

Massaging autism (continued)

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

A quote to begin:"Tactile-based interventions such as massage therapy were the most promising intervention in reducing behavioral problems."Derived from the systematic review results published by Farahiyah Wan Yunus and colleagues [1] looking at the current collected literature on sensory-based interventions for "children with behavioral problems", researchers zoomed in on massage therapy as perhaps being something requiring further investigation. Said therapy also potentially overlaying onto the label of autism too.I've previously covered some of the peer-reviewed literature mentioning massage and autism before on this blog (see here) and the idea that Qigong massage for example, might hold some important benefits for some on the autism spectrum [2]. The intervening few years have seen some further developments in this area that might be useful to bring to your attention.So:Starting with the 2011 review from Lee and colleagues [3] the message was one of 'limited evidence for effectiveness' when it came to massage therapy and autism. Further: "all of the included trials have high risk of bias" was something denoting care in making too much of the scientific effects of massage for cases of autism.The authors of the Qigong massage - autism paper were not however ready to give up quite yet on looking at massage and touch when it came to autism as per the results of their analysis of a "qigong massage database" [4] (open-access here) and the suggestion that "tactile impairment in young children with autism is treatable with a qigong massage protocol." Yes it was a retrospective review but keep it in mind for now.Zen shiatsu was the name of the massaging game in the paper from Burke [5] (open-access here) and a case report of "a seven-year-old male with a diagnosis of autism who was given 20-min Zen Shiatsu sessions weekly for six consecutive weeks." Zen Shiatsu by the way refers to a specialist type of massage that "uses finger pressure, manipulations and stretches" [6] as part of its approach. The author reported that there may be more to see when  it came to "the child's overall quality of life" improving over the course of the intervention period.Yet more from Silva and colleagues [7] (open-access here) was published quite recently and the "first report from a two-year replication study" on massage therapy as part of Qigong Sensory Treatment (QST) intervention for children diagnosed with autism. "This is the first evidence-based intervention for tactile abnormalities in children with autism that effectively treats them with a massage protocol rather than making environmental accommodations to them" was the claim made by authors, together with data suggesting that massage may indeed have some positive effects for those on the spectrum (and their families). Even Brondino et al [8] acknowledged that massage was one of the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) options that showed 'promising results'.Allowing for the fact that there is quite a lot more science to do in the area of massage and autism including some further research on the hows and whys of touch/massage when it comes to the display of core and peripheral autism features, I'm minded to suggest that the future looks rather bright for massage therapy. I know touch and the whole sensory side of autism can be a sticking point for some people on the spectrum [9] but 'beware of sweeping generalisation' is all that I will say. The idea that: "Parents reported feeling 'closer' to their children and felt that the touch therapy had opened a communication channel between themselves and their children" should also not be under-estimated in light of other findings (see here).If one also starts to look at the effects of something like massage on some of the comorbidities that seem to be over-represented when autism is present (think ESSENCE) such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) for example [10] one gets the impression that the hows and whys might be quite a bit more complicated than first thought.Music: White Stripes - Hotel Yorba.----------[1] Wan Yunus F. et al. Sensory-Based Intervention for Children with Behavioral Problems: A Systematic Review. J Autism Dev Disord. 2015 Jun 20.[2] Silva LM. et al. Early intervention for autism with a parent-delivered Qigong massage program: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Occup Ther. 2011 Sep-Oct;65(5):550-9.[3] Lee MS. et al. Massage therapy for children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic review. J Clin Psychiatry. 2011 Mar;72(3):406-11.[4] Silva L. & Schalock M. Treatment of tactile impairment in young children with autism: results with qigong massage. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. 2013 Dec 3;6(4):12-20.[5] Burke A. Zen shiatsu: a longitudinal case study measuring stress reduction in a child with autism spectrum disorder. Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. 2014 Dec 2;7(4):23-8.[6] Robinson N. et al. The evidence for Shiatsu: a systematic review of Shiatsu and acupressure. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011 Oct 7;11:88.[7] Silva LM. et al. Early Intervention with a Parent-Delivered Massage Protocol Directed at Tactile Abnormalities Decreases Severity of Autism and Improves Child-to-Parent Interactions: A Replication Study. Autism Res Treat. 2015;2015:904585.[8] Brondino N. et al. Complementary and Alternative Therapies for Autism Spectrum Disorder. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:258589.[9] Cullen L. & Barlow J. 'Kiss, cuddle, squeeze': the experiences and meaning of touch among parents of children with autism attending a Touch Therapy Programme. J Child Health Care. 2002 Sep;6(3):171-81.[10] Maddigan B. et al. The effects of massage therapy & exercise therapy on children/adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Can Child Adolesc Psychiatr Rev. 2003 Mar;12(2):40-3.----------Wan Yunus F, Liu KP, Bissett M, & Penkala S (2015). Sensory-Based Intervention for Children with Behavioral Problems: A Systematic Review. Journal of autism and developmental disorders PMID: 26092640... Read more »

  • July 8, 2015
  • 12:05 AM
  • 83 views

Balancing Chronic Ankle Instability

by Nicole Cattano in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

A 6-week lower-extremity training program that incorporates progressive balance exercises is effective in reducing feelings of instability and improving dynamic balance in athletes with chronic ankle instability.... Read more »

  • July 7, 2015
  • 09:58 PM
  • 67 views

Autoimmune Antibodies Can Lead To EKG Abnormalities and Ventricular Arrhythmias

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mohamed Boutjdir, PhD, FAHA Director of the Cardiovascular Research Program VA New York Harbor Healthcare System Professor, Depts of Medicine, Cell Biology and Pharmacology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center and NYU School of Medicine, … Continue reading →
The post Autoimmune Antibodies Can Lead To EKG Abnormalities and Ventricular Arrhythmias appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
... Read more »

Mohamed Boutjdir, PhD, FAHADirector of the Cardiovascular Research Program. (2015) Autoimmune Antibodies Can Lead To EKG Abnormalities and Ventricular Arrhythmias. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • July 7, 2015
  • 09:27 PM
  • 74 views

Modest Lifestyle Changes May Markedly Reduce Heart Failure Risk

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Liana C. Del Gobbo, PhD Postdoctoral Research Fellow Friedman School of Nutrition Science & Policy Tufts University Boston MA Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Del Gobbo: Heart … Continue reading →
The post Modest Lifestyle Changes May Markedly Reduce Heart Failure Risk appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
... Read more »

Liana C. Del Gobbo, PhDPostdoctoral Research Fellow. (2015) Modest Lifestyle Changes May Markedly Reduce Heart Failure Risk. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • July 7, 2015
  • 09:08 PM
  • 61 views

Benzoyl Peroxide May Reduce Risk of P.acnes Infection After Surgery

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Paul M. Sethi, MD Orthopaedic & Neurosurgery Specialists Greenwich, CT MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? Dr. Sethi: Propionibacterium acnes is one of the most significant pathogens in shoulder surgery; the cost of a single … Continue reading →
The post Benzoyl Peroxide May Reduce Risk of P.acnes Infection After Surgery appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
... Read more »

Paul M. Sethi, MD, & Orthopaedic . (2015) Benzoyl Peroxide May Reduce Risk of P.acnes Infection After Surgery. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • July 7, 2015
  • 03:21 PM
  • 127 views

Pupil response predicts depression risk in kids

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Most parents don’t want to think about their children as depressed, but that can be a deadly mistake. Short of clinical diagnosis through cost prohibitive therapy, there is no real way to tell if a child is at risk for depression. However, according to new research from Binghamton University , how much a child’s pupil dilates in response to seeing an emotional image can predict his or her risk of depression over the next two years.... Read more »

  • July 7, 2015
  • 11:16 AM
  • 113 views

Brain Deficits in Visual Hallucinations

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

One the early things I was taught in my neuroscience training was that new-onset visual hallucinations need to be assessed for medical or "organic causes".Auditory hallucinations were felt to be more characteristic of schizophrenia.One medical disorder linked to visual hallucinations is dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). DLB is second to Alzheimer's disease in producing neurodegenerative dementia. Visual hallucinations is a hallmark of DLB and is found in up to 70% of clinical samples with the disorder.A recent study from France provides insight into the neuroanatomical correlates of visual hallucinations in DLB.Researchers in this study used single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in a group of 36 subjects with DLB who reported visual hallucinations.This group of cases was compared to 30 subjects with DLD who did not report visual hallucinations.Specific differences in blood flow were noted with visual hallucinations. Visual hallucinations subjects had diminished cerebral perfusion in the following regions.Left anterior cingulate cortexLeft orbitofrontal cortexLeft cuneusDeficits in regional cerebral perfusion in several areas correlated with the severity of visual hallucinations:Bilateral anterior cingulate cortexLeft orbitofrontal cortexRight parahippocampal gyrusRight inferior temporal cortexLeft cuneusThe authors note the cuneus (also known as Brodmann's area 18). This region is known as a secondary visual integration area. Reduced blood flow to this region may contribute to visual processing errors and the subjective sensation of visual hallucinations. Perfusion deficits in more anterior regions may contribute to inability to recognize the visual hallucinations as abnormal.This study is one of many emerging showing specific clinical features of neuropsychiatric disorders may relate to specific neuroanatomical deficits and impairment.Readers with more interest in this topic can access the free full-text manuscript by clicking on the citation below.Image of left cingulate cortex is an iPad screen shot from the app 3D Brain from the author's files.Follow the author on Twitter @WRY999Heitz C, Noblet V, Cretin B, Philippi N, Kremer L, Stackfleth M, Hubele F, Armspach JP, Namer I, & Blanc F (2015). Neural correlates of visual hallucinations in dementia with Lewy bodies. Alzheimer's research & therapy, 7 (1) PMID: 25717349... Read more »

Heitz C, Noblet V, Cretin B, Philippi N, Kremer L, Stackfleth M, Hubele F, Armspach JP, Namer I, & Blanc F. (2015) Neural correlates of visual hallucinations in dementia with Lewy bodies. Alzheimer's research , 7(1), 6. PMID: 25717349  

  • July 7, 2015
  • 07:15 AM
  • 45 views

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy May Help Many Patients With Insomnia

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jason Ong, Ph.D., CBSM Associate Professor, Department of Behavioral Sciences Director, Behavioral Sleep Medicine Training Program Rush University Medical Center Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Insomnia is … Continue reading →
The post Cognitive Behavioral Therapy May Help Many Patients With Insomnia appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
... Read more »

Dr. Gary K Owens Ph.D, & Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center. (2015) Cognitive Behavioral Therapy May Help Many Patients With Insomnia. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • July 7, 2015
  • 06:57 AM
  • 44 views

Key Study Shifts Focus To Smooth Muscle Cells In Atherosclerotic Heart Disease

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Gary K Owens Ph.D Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Owens: The leading cause of death in the USA and worldwide … Continue reading →
The post Key Study Shifts Focus To Smooth Muscle Cells In Atherosclerotic Heart Disease appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
... Read more »

Dr. Gary K Owens Ph.D Robert M. Berne Cardiovascular Research Center. (2015) Key Study Shifts Focus To Smooth Muscle Cells In Atherosclerotic Heart Disease. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

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