Click Here for More on Salt/Sodium on MedicalResearch.com MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sandra L Jackson PhD Epidemic Intelligence Service, CDC Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Atlanta, Georgia Medical Research: What … Continue reading →
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Sandra L Jackson PhD. (2016) Nearly All Americans Consume More Salt Than Recommended. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
More on Protein Kinases on MedicalResearch.com MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Angus Cameron Kinase Biology Laboratory Barts Cancer Institute at Queen Mary University of London and Professor Peter Parker Protein Phosphorylation Laboratory The Francis Crick Institute Medical Research: What is the … Continue reading →
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Dr Angus Cameron and, & Professor Peter Parker. (2016) Separate Roles For Protein Kinases in Embryo Development and Cancer. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
More on Colon Cancer on MedicalResearch.com MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Nana Keum, PhD Department of Nutrition Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Boston, MA Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. … Continue reading →
The post Male Pattern Baldness Linked To Increased Risk of Colon Polyps appeared first on MedicalResearch.com.
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Dr. Nana Keum, PhD. (2016) Male Pattern Baldness Linked To Increased Risk of Colon Polyps. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
Researchers have identified for the first time a cell type in the brain of mice that is integral to attention. Moreover, by manipulating the activity of this cell type, the scientists were able to enhance attention in mice. The results add to the understanding of how the brain's frontal lobes work and control behaviour.
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Hoseok Kim, Sofie hedlund-Richter, Xinming Wang, Karl Deisseroth, Marie Carlén. (2016) Prefrontal Parvalbumin Neurons in Control of Attention. Cell . DOI: http://dx.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.038
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Jenny Löfgren Surgery and Perioperative Sciences Faculty of Medicine, University Hospital of Umeå Umeå Sweden Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: There are an estimated 220 million … Continue reading →
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Dr. Jenny Löfgren. (2016) Lost-Cost Mesh Surgery for Groin Hernia Successful in Low Resource Setting. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
2015 was the year for gene-editing to shine, especially thanks to CRISPR-Cas9. Voted Breakthrough of the Year by the Science journal panel of scientists, few techniques have made such a quick and controversial impact in the last decades as CRISPR. ... Read more »
Doudna J. (2015) Genome-editing revolution: My whirlwind year with CRISPR. Nature, 528(7583), 469-71. PMID: 26701037
Perez-Pinera, P., Kocak, D., Vockley, C., Adler, A., Kabadi, A., Polstein, L., Thakore, P., Glass, K., Ousterout, D., Leong, K.... (2013) RNA-guided gene activation by CRISPR-Cas9–based transcription factors. Nature Methods, 10(10), 973-976. DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.2600
I was intrigued to read the findings reported by Anna Sosa  who reported that "play with books and traditional toys was superior to play with electronic toys in promoting high-quality communication."This was a study looking at communication between parents and their infants aged 10-16 months old as a function of toy type, where electronic toys - "3 battery-operated toys with buttons and switches that can be manipulated to produce lights, words, phrases, and songs" - were pitted against 'traditional' toys - "3 nonelectronic toys that also have the potential to teach animal names, colors, and shapes." Those electronic toys were also chosen on the premise that "they are marketed as educational toys that promote language development for children in this age range and are advertised as teaching animal names, colors, and shapes."Describing results from 26 parent-infant dyads whereby pairs "engaged in 2 15-minute play sessions per toy set over a 3-day period" using electronic toys, non-electronic toys and also books (y'know those paper things), various outcomes were measured including child vocalisations, adult words and conversational turns. As per the opening sentence, toy type did seem to affect communication between parent and child. So: "Play with electronic toys is associated with decreased quantity and quality of language input compared with play with books or traditional toys." The author goes as far to say that set within other research in this area: "both play with traditional toys and book reading can be promoted as language-facilitating activities while play with electronic toys should be discouraged."Being careful not to fall into any sweeping generalisations about how technology is 'all bad' for child development and beyond, bearing in mind where such discussions have previously led, I have to say that it there may be some important lessons to learn from the Sosa study results. That early years communication between parent and child is increasingly being realised to be pretty important is one part of discussions (see here for more information on the '30 million word gap' for example). That parents are also literally bombarded these days with various edu-toys and other gadgets often making some rather big claims is another aspect. The Sosa results hint that there might be a happy medium to strike between the old and the new when it comes to early play and communication (including reading) and that we should as parents, perhaps be mindful that electronic toys with their lights, sounds and various educational claims might not necessarily trump something a little less flashy. Similar sentiments might also apply to more pathological states too .Music: William Shatner sings er... well, not for the easily offended.---------- Sosa AV. Association of the Type of Toy Used During Play With the Quantity and Quality of Parent-Infant Communication. JAMA Pediatrics. 2015. Dec 23. Christakis DA. Rethinking Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. JAMA Pediatr. 2016 Jan 4:1-2.----------Sosa AV (2015). Association of the Type of Toy Used During Play With the Quantity and Quality of Parent-Infant Communication JAMA Pediatrics : 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3753... Read more »
Sosa AV. (2015) Association of the Type of Toy Used During Play With the Quantity and Quality of Parent-Infant Communication. JAMA Pediatrics. info:/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3753
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Islam Elgendy, MD Clinical Pharmacology, Cardiology University of Florida Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Elgendy: This study aimed to review the current evidence for the effect of statin … Continue reading →
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Islam Elgendy, MD. (2016) Statins May Reduce Risk of Complications and Death After Cardiac Surgery. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
Silicon, a metalloid situated just beneath carbon in the periodic table, is the second most abundant element in the Earth's crust after oxygen. These two elements join together in all sorts of interesting ways to form silicate minerals, which collectively comprise the vast majority of the Earth's rocks and minerals. One of the major forms of silicate is silicon dioxide (silica), usually occurring as quartz crystals. Silica is found all over the world, being a component of sedimentary (e.g. sandstone), igneous (e.g. granite), and metamorphic (e.g. slate) rocks. Sand is often composed of broken up silica-containing rocks.Working with silica can result in the generation of particles capable of sticking around in the air for a while as a dust if they are stirred up. If these particles are small enough, they can be inhaled deep into a person's lungs and cause an inflammatory response. Essentially, white blood cells known as macrophages consume the tiny silica particles and proceed to freak the heck out. As part of this freak out, they tell other cells called fibroblasts to pump out collagen. Over time, this can lead to the formation of nodules of relatively inflexible fibrous tissue, producing a condition known as silicosis where it is progressively more difficult to breathe. People with silicosis are more susceptible to catching tuberculosis and other infectious lung diseases, and are also more likely to develop lung cancer. It's a crappy, preventable illness.The glowing flecks are silica crystals stuck in the lung tissue of a person with silicosis (Source)Due to the ubiquity of silica in the Earth's crust and our long-standing interest in extracting rocks from the ground and using these rocks to do or make things, people have been coming down with silicosis for thousands of years. It was known to the ancient Greeks, with Pliny (1st century AD) mentioning the use of respirators constructed from pig bladders as protection against toxic dusts.A particularly brutal outbreak of silicosis occurred among workers tasked with constructing the Hawk’s Nest Tunnel in West Virginia in the 1920s. The rock through which the tunnel was made was full of silica, and workers weren't given masks or other protection against dust exposure. Nearly a third of the estimated 2,500 people who spent time in the tunnels died from an acute (brief and severe) form of silicosis, and most of the remaining workers eventually ended up with the disease.Being an ancient illness, silicosis has acquired many names: chalicosis, dust consumption, flint disease, ganister disease, grave-digger's disease, grinders' asthma, grinders' consumption, grit consumption, knife grinder's phthisis, masons' disease, miner's asthma, miner's phthisis, potters' rot, schistosis, sewer disease, and slate workers disease.Taking a look at the origins of these names:Chalicosis and flint disease refer to silicosis caused by inhaling particles of flint, a type of rock made up of tiny quartz crystals. Flint has a long history of being used to make tools, ceramics, and building stones. Axes and arrowheads were crafted way back in the Stone Age by striking pieces of flint with other rocks to break off bits and thereby shape the flint into tools.Consumption and phthisis are other words for tuberculosis, but can also be used in a more general way to refer to any long-lasting and progressive lung disease. Due to the similar effects tuberculosis and silicosis have on lung tissue (e.g. the formation of nodules), silicosis has sometimes been called pseudo-tuberculosis.Ganister is a dense type of sandstone ground up to make crucibles and silica bricks used to line furnaces.Several of the names for silicosis include the word grinder, as people employed in this occupation historically used grindstones made of sandstone to sharpen knives and other metal tools.Silicosis came to be known as grave-digger's disease and sewer disease because it occurred among people who dug graves or excavated sewer tunnels in regions containing lots of sandstone (e.g. Sydney, Australia).Masons who cut grindstones and millstones from silica-containing rocks were also prone to silicosis. Carl Linnaeus, an 18th century scientist and physician (perhaps best known for his work in the fields of taxonomy and ecology), reported that grindstone cutters usually died of lung disease prior to turning 30.Miners who excavate silica-containing rocks can develop silicosis. This includes gold miners, since this metal sometimes occurs with quartz.Potters' rot is silicosis associated with the manufacture of pottery objects. This typically involves mixing up silica, clay, and previously broken pottery, and pouring the result into moulds for firing. Silica dust can become airborne during the casting process as well as when broken pieces are crushed for reuse.Schistosis refers to silicosis caused by inhaling slate dust. Slate, which contains silica, is mostly used to make roof and floor tiles, and workers who cut these tiles may be exposed to dust.A couple of other silica-containing materials capable of causing silicosis are sand (used for such activities as sandblasting, metal casting, and glass manufacture), scouring powders made from pulverized sand, concrete (when cut, drilled, or jackhammered), and diatomaceous earth.ReferencesCorn JK. 1980. Historical aspects of industrial hygiene — II. Silicosis. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal 41(2):125-133.Donaldson K, Seaton A. 2012. A short history of the toxicology of inhaled particles. Particle and Fibre Toxicology 9:13. [Full text]Holt PF. 1956. Silicosis and related diseases. Science Progress 44(175):435-448. [First page]Quaintance PA. 1934. Silicosis: A study of 106 pottery workers. American Journal of Public Health and the Nations Health 24(12):1244-1251. [Full text]... Read more »
Donaldson K, & Seaton A. (2012) A short history of the toxicology of inhaled particles. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 9(1), 13. DOI: 10.1186/1743-8977-9-13
The short answer is, “Not really.” But as is often the case, the real story behind so many headlines last week is a bit more complicated. What are they talking about, Willis? These headlines, each saying something slightly different, are referring to a study by Indjeian and colleagues published in Cell. Researchers identified a stretch of […]... Read more »
A New Year’s resolution to exercise could also help you sleep. But how? It wears you out and reduces stress, but there is much more. Exercise manipulates the temperature of the body by messing with your brain and modulates immune cytokine levels. It’s true… your immune system controls sleep cycles!... Read more »
Vivanco P, Studholme KM, & Morin LP. (2013) Drugs that prevent mouse sleep also block light-induced locomotor suppression, circadian rhythm phase shifts and the drop in core temperature. Neuroscience, 98-109. PMID: 24056197
Robey E, Dawson B, Halson S, Gregson W, King S, Goodman C, & Eastwood P. (2013) Effect of evening postexercise cold water immersion on subsequent sleep. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 45(7), 1394-402. PMID: 23377833
Santos RV, Viana VA, Boscolo RA, Marques VG, Santana MG, Lira FS, Tufik S, & de Mello MT. (2012) Moderate exercise training modulates cytokine profile and sleep in elderly people. Cytokine, 60(3), 731-5. PMID: 22917967
España RA, McCormack SL, Mochizuki T, & Scammell TE. (2007) Running promotes wakefulness and increases cataplexy in orexin knockout mice. Sleep, 30(11), 1417-25. PMID: 18041476
"Collectively, these results clearly indicate the existence of dysbiosis in the gut of AN [anorexia nervosa] patients."That opening sentence comes from the paper by Chihiro Morita and colleagues  (open-access available here) who "compared the fecal microbiota of female patients with AN (n = 25), including restrictive (ANR, n = 14) and binge-eating (ANBP, n = 11) subtypes, with those of age-matched healthy female controls (n = 21)." Stool and blood samples were analysed for various potentially important markers, and some interesting results were forthcoming.So: "AN patients had significantly lower amounts of total bacteria, C. coccoides group, C. leptum subgroup, B. fragilis, and Streptococcus than age-matched healthy women." Although I am a little wary of zooming in on just one bacterial finding, the suggestion that this relatively small participant group diagnosed with AN showed something akin to a decrease in levels of B. fragilis (Bacteroides fragilis) caught my eye. My reasoning: well, lets just say that research on a certain mouse model applied to another diagnosis frequently discussed on this blog has mentioned B. fragilis before; particularly what happened when this stuff was offered as an oral treatment: "Bacteroides fragilis corrects gut permeability, alters microbial composition, and ameliorates defects in communicative, stereotypic, anxiety-like and sensorimotor behaviors." Now apply all that to the idea that there may be some 'overlap' when it comes to autistic traits and AN (see here) and hopefully I'm not getting too carried away.One other detail from the Morita study also caught my eye specifically with C-reactive protein (CRP) in mind. We are told that: "The ANR group exhibited significantly lower serum levels of C-reactive protein than the control group." Again accepting the small participant numbers included for study, I was a little surprised that nothing too much was made of this finding in the paper discussion and conclusions. If one assumes that CRP levels might be a rough-and-ready response indicator to something like inflammation, the idea that there may be 'issues' with either systemtic inflammation or the response to inflammation is something than I'd like to see a little more investigation into.There is a small but growing interest in the possible role of the gut microbiota in relation to AN. Accepting that the issues with food (restriction and in some cases "abnormal eating or purging behaviors") that define the condition are probably going to play some role in the make-up of the gut microbiome, I do think are some interesting routes for future study. That intestinal dysbiosis when present in cases of AN may have some possible psychological repercussions as per the findings reported by Kleiman and colleagues  for example, is one area of interest that could lead to some important discussion points.Oh and whilst we're on the topic of gut bacteria, yes, we might have to redefine what 'the common knowledge' on numbers of bacteria that call us home vs. cells, but don't downplay what important role(s) they play (see here).Music: Me First and the Gimme Gimmes - Sweet Caroline.---------- Morita C. et al. Gut Dysbiosis in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa. PLoS One. 2015 Dec 18;10(12):e0145274. Kleiman SC. et al. The Intestinal Microbiota in Acute Anorexia Nervosa and During Renourishment: Relationship to Depression, Anxiety, and Eating Disorder Psychopathology. Psychosom Med. 2015 Nov-Dec;77(9):969-81.----------Morita C, Tsuji H, Hata T, Gondo M, Takakura S, Kawai K, Yoshihara K, Ogata K, Nomoto K, Miyazaki K, & Sudo N (2015). Gut Dysbiosis in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa. PloS one, 10 (12) PMID: 26682545... Read more »
Helmetless-tackling training reduces head impacts in collegiate football players.... Read more »
Swartz EE, Broglio SP, Cook SB, Cantu RC, Ferrara MS, Guskiewicz KM, & Myers JL. (2015) Early Results of a Helmetless-Tackling Intervention to Decrease Head Impacts in Football Players. Journal of Athletic Training. PMID: 26651278
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Dimitrios Karussis M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Neurology Head, Multiple Sclerosis Center Hadassah BrainLabs Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Prof. Karussis: BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics is developing innovative, autologous stem cell … Continue reading →
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Prof. Dimitrios Karussis. (2016) Stem Cell Derived Growth Factors May Slow Progression of ALS. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Caroline Fox, MD MPH National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Assistant Clinical Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Fox: There is … Continue reading →
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Dr. Caroline Fox. (2016) Sugar Sweetened Beverages Linked to Increase in Belly Fat. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Aaron J. Dawes, MD Fellow, VA/RWJF Clinical Scholars Program Division of Health Services Research University of California Los Angeles Los Angeles, CA 90024 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Dawes: We reviewed … Continue reading →
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Dr. Aaron Dawes. (2016) Mental Health May Improve For Some Patients After Bariatric Surgery. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Navdeep Tangri, MD, PhD FRCPC Department of Medicine Seven Oaks General Hospital University of Manitoba Winnipeg, Canada Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Tangri: Chronic kidney disease is … Continue reading →
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Navdeep Tangri, MD, PhD FRCP. (2015) Equations Use Routine Data To Predict Risk of Kidney Failure. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Diana Schendel, Professor MSO Department of Public Health Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine and Department of Economics and Business National Centre for Register-based Research Aarhus University Denmark Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What … Continue reading →
The post Autism Spectrum Disorder: Comorbid Conditions Contribute To Early Mortality Risks appeared first on MedicalResearch.com.
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Prof. Diana Schendel. (2016) Autism Spectrum Disorder: Comorbid Conditions Contribute To Early Mortality Risks. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: R. Jeffrey Karnes MD Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Karnes: Cancer recurrence following radical prostatectomy is a concern for men … Continue reading →
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R. Jeffrey Karnes MD. (2016) Study Identifies PSA Level Most Likely To Predict Prostate Cancer Recurrence. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Susan K. Boolbol, MD, FACS Chief, Division of Breast Surgery Chief, Appel-Venet Comprehensive Breast Service Co-Director, Breast Surgery Fellowship Mount Sinai Beth Israel Associate Professor of Surgery Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY … Continue reading →
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Susan K. Boolbol, MD, FACS. (2016) New Breast Cancer Screening Recommendations Carry Risks Of Later Diagnosis. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
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