by Jennifer Gibson, PharmD in Brain Blogger
Depression is a common mental health disorder that negatively affects daily functioning and quality of life. Unfortunately, depression is often a recurrent disorder. Current treatment guidelines are based on clinical features of the disease, but new evidence points to sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics that influence the severity and prognosis of depression. Specifically, a study published [...]... Read more »
Colman I, Naicker K, Zeng Y, Ataullahjan A, Senthilselvan A, & Patten SB. (2011) Predictors of long-term prognosis of depression. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal , 183(17), 1969-76. PMID: 22025655
Howland RH, Wilson MG, Kornstein SG, Clayton AH, Trivedi MH, Wohlreich MM, & Fava M. (2008) Factors predicting reduced antidepressant response: experience with the SNRI duloxetine in patients with major depression. Annals of clinical psychiatry : official journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists, 20(4), 209-18. PMID: 19034753
Katon W, Unützer J, & Russo J. (2010) Major depression: the importance of clinical characteristics and treatment response to prognosis. Depression and anxiety, 27(1), 19-26. PMID: 19798766
Technetium-99m (Tc-99m) is the most used radioactive tracer with over 30 million tests per year done all over the world. When tagged to a pharmaceutical or biological marker, it helps evaluate, diagnose or manage cancer spread, blood flow and cardiac function; brain activity and thyroid disease; and detect osseous metastasis, fractures and infections (bone scan). . . Tc-99m is a metastable isotope of molybdenum-99 (Mo-99). . . Lately, Tc-99m supply chain has come under stress.
(Read ........ Read more »
Friday Grand Rounds are back, a day early because Jeff just flew in and can't wait to tell us all about Biomarkers.
So, please settle down in your uncomfortable conference room chairs (don't spill coffee) and let's listen to Jeff Settleman. Jeff is the Senior Director of Discovery Oncology and Staff Scientist at Genentech, South San Francisco, Calif. He is going to teach us about biomarkers and their potential for identifying which patients may benefit form certain treatme........ Read more »
McDermott, U., & Settleman, J. (2009) Personalized Cancer Therapy With Selective Kinase Inhibitors: An Emerging Paradigm in Medical Oncology. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 27(33), 5650-5659. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2009.22.9054
Two articles in this week's issue of Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News reviewed recent trends in the next-generation sequencing and targeted resequencing technologies. These advances are expected to further impact cancer diagnostics and treatment decision-making.
Harry Glorikain and Brian Clancy of Scientia Advisors described business trends in next-generation sequencing:
The shift of sequencing service (or activity) from small labs to large labs, companies and consorti........ Read more »
Johansson H, & et al. (2011) Targeted resequencing of candidate genes using selector probes. Nucleic acids research, 39(2). PMID: 21059679
The publication of human genome blueprint in 2000 was a great block party, summer Olympics coming to town, but the next morning saw most revelers picking up their drunken selves and going back to their old day jobs. Some kept the flames burning by taking up more and more sequencing of whatever came their way labeled as a model organism. The human genome blueprint was like a great idea which won a patent but still needed a lot of development work to morph into a cool product.
Po........ Read more »
Lander ES. (2011) Initial impact of the sequencing of the human genome. Nature, 470(7333), 187-97. PMID: 21307931
Probiotics, often referred to as ‘good bacteria’, are known to promote a healthy gut, but can they promote a healthy mind? Exploring the new world of neurological probiotics, researchers in BioEssays present new ideas on how neurochemicals delivered directly to the gut, via probiotic intestinal microbiota, exert their beneficial effects in maintaining gastrointestinal health and even psychological well-being.... Read more »
Yesterday, Philadelphia Flyers' fans booed a public service advertisement sponsored by NHL's Hockey Fights Cancer. The advertisement aired during the game was to solicit donations for The Leukemia & Lymphoma Society (see below). Some say that the fans were not booing the cancer charity or Hockey Fights Cancer's mission, instead
they were booing the "hated" players from rival teams featured in the video (none were from Canucks who were facing Flyers on the arena!) Read th........ Read more »
Jonas, E., Schimel, J., Greenberg, J., & Pyszczynski, T. (2002) The Scrooge Effect: Evidence that Mortality Salience Increases Prosocial Attitudes and Behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(10), 1342-1353. DOI: 10.1177/014616702236834
A Senior VP of a Bay Area cancer biotech's R&D recently gave a spin to an old saying and commented, “the beatings will continue until the patient body's morale will improve,” and he added, “the beating will now come through cancer cell metabolism."
When I asked him to elaborate, he paused, took a sip of his favorite latte concoction, and said that the beaten are the "cancer cells, " the morale is the "patient's immune system," the ones doing the beating will be the new ap........ Read more »
Vander Heiden MG. (2011) Targeting cancer metabolism: a therapeutic window opens. Nature reviews. Drug discovery, 10(9), 671-84. PMID: 21878982
Today San Francisco-based Medivation, Inc., ($MDVN) saw its stock value scale El Capitan within a day. This coming on the heels of Dendreon Corp. ($DNDN) losing a huge chunk of its stock value yesterday is a good example of human psychology. We reward "optimism" over "cautious behavior."
Dendreon's Provenge is a great option for Prostate cancer patients because it takes the "vaccine" route and thus, should be a durable therapy. But, less than expected sales ........ Read more »
Tran, C., Ouk, S., Clegg, N., Chen, Y., Watson, P., Arora, V., Wongvipat, J., Smith-Jones, P., Yoo, D., Kwon, A.... (2009) Development of a Second-Generation Antiandrogen for Treatment of Advanced Prostate Cancer. Science, 324(5928), 787-790. DOI: 10.1126/science.1168175
Scher HI, Beer TM, Higano CS, Anand A, Taplin ME, Efstathiou E, Rathkopf D, Shelkey J, Yu EY, Alumkal J.... (2010) Antitumour activity of MDV3100 in castration-resistant prostate cancer: a phase 1-2 study. Lancet, 375(9724), 1437-46. PMID: 20398925
John Arrowsmith of Thomson Reuters, who described these numbers in a Nature Reviews Drug Discovery article, listed three major reasons for Phase III failures in oncology:
(1) lack of a complete understanding of relevant pathways and target biology,
(2) over-optimism and wishful thinking by drug companies who in their eagerness to replenish pipelines rush into Phase III on the back of less-than-robust Phase II or proof-of-concept data, and
(3) assumption that a drug w........ Read more »
Arrowsmith J. (2011) Trial watch: phase III and submission failures: 2007-2010. Nature reviews. Drug discovery, 10(2), 87. PMID: 21283095
Kola, I., & Landis, J. (2004) Opinion: Can the pharmaceutical industry reduce attrition rates?. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 3(8), 711-716. DOI: 10.1038/nrd1470
In a world where high-speed neutrinos and melting ice caps hog the limelight, it’s sometimes nice to pay tribute to the sillier side of science. Because for every Einstein there’s a physicist trying to understand why toast always lands butter-side down; for every Darwin, a biologist who studies fish farts.... Read more »
Bubier NE, Paxton CG, Bowers P, & Deeming DC. (1998) Courtship behaviour of ostriches (Struthio camelus) towards humans under farming conditions in Britain. British Poultry Science, 39(4), 477-81. PMID: 9800029
Edgeworth R, Dalton BJ, & Parnell T. (1984) The Pitch Drop Experiment. European Journal of Physics, 198-200. info:/
Maguire EA, Gadian DG, Johnsrude IS, Good CD, Ashburner J, Frackowiak RS, & Frith CD. (2000) Navigation-related structural change in the hippocampi of taxi drivers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(8), 4398-403. PMID: 10716738
Wilson B, Batty RS, & Dill LM. (2004) Pacific and Atlantic herring produce burst pulse sounds. Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society. PMID: 15101430
veit et al evaluated whether former 678 male elite athletes (internationally or nationally ranked) in both impact (n = 586) and nonimpact (n = 92) sports have a higher prevalence (frequency) of hip and knee OA than 1316 male controls.... Read more »
Tveit M, Rosengren BR, Nilsson JK, & Karlsson MK. (2011) Former Male Elite Athletes Have a Higher Prevalence of Osteoarthritis and Arthroplasty in the Hip and Knee Than Expected. The American Journal of Sports Medicine. PMID: 22130474
In 1955, the World Health Organization launched an ambitious campaign to eradicate malaria. The effort relied on new, synthetic antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine and a miraculous new insecticide called DDT. Initially, it went pretty well: several countries’ malaria rates … Continue reading →... Read more »
Akogbeto, M., Padonou, G., Bankole, H., Gazard, D., & Gbedjissi, G. (2011) Dramatic Decrease in Malaria Transmission after Large-Scale Indoor Residual Spraying with Bendiocarb in Benin, an Area of High Resistance of Anopheles gambiae to Pyrethroids. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 85(4), 586-593. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2011.10-0668
Adelman, Z., Kilcullen, K., Koganemaru, R., Anderson, M., Anderson, T., & Miller, D. (2011) Deep Sequencing of Pyrethroid-Resistant Bed Bugs Reveals Multiple Mechanisms of Resistance within a Single Population. PLoS ONE, 6(10). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026228
Just because one study finds a relationship between A and B, does not mean that other studies will be able to replicate that finding, or that it will extend to other situations. On the face of it, this seems like an incredibly obvious statement. And yet it’s something that newspapers often forget, and which I think could have some very negative consequences.... Read more »
Goldfield, G., Kenny, G., Hadjiyannakis, S., Phillips, P., Alberga, A., Saunders, T., Tremblay, M., Malcolm, J., Prud'homme, D., Gougeon, R.... (2011) Video Game Playing Is Independently Associated with Blood Pressure and Lipids in Overweight and Obese Adolescents. PLoS ONE, 6(11). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0026643
Carson, V., & Janssen, I. (2011) Volume, patterns, and types of sedentary behavior and cardio-metabolic health in children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 274. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-274
It is no secret that child abuse is a terrible threat to the physical and mental health of a child, including its effect on a child later in life.... Read more »
Fisher PA, & Pfeifer JH. (2011) Conceptual and methodological issues in neuroimaging studies of the effects of child maltreatment. Archives of pediatrics , 165(12), 1133-4. PMID: 22147781
Kruger and Smith examined the effect of antioxidant supplementation (grape seed-derived polyphenol) on the regeneration of muscle following a contusion injury.... Read more »
Kruger MJ, & Smith C. (2011) Postcontusion Polyphenol Treatment Alters Inflammation and Muscle Regeneration. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. PMID: 22033514
The Dutch Paradox of abortion entails the observation that in the Netherlands induced abortion is legal, safe, available, and free, but also extremely rare compared to other countries. A new publication in the European Sociological Review, authored by Mark Levels (corresponding author), Ariana Need, Rense Nieuwenhuis (that’s me), Roderick Sluiter, and Wout Ultee, examines the effect of both individual and societal effects on women’s decision process leading to an abortion. ... Read more »
Levels, M., Need, A., Nieuwenhuis, R., Sluiter, R., & Ultee, W. (2010) Unintended Pregnancy and Induced Abortion in the Netherlands 1954-2002. European Sociological Review. DOI: 10.1093/esr/jcq065
U.S. Survey Rates of Ever Being Diagnosed with ADHD (ages 4-17)ADHD symptoms emerge early in childhood and vary over time. In some children, symptoms will resolve without treatment. For others, ADHD symptoms persist and in some children the symptoms may worsen.Identifying risk factors for poor prognosis of early childhood ADHD symptoms would assist in targeting secondary prevention interventions. Galera and colleagues recently outlined a study of early risk factors for ADHD symptoms ........ Read more »
Galera, C., Cote, S., Bouvard, M., Pingault, J., Melchior, M., Michel, G., Boivin, M., & Tremblay, R. (2011) Early Risk Factors for Hyperactivity-Impulsivity and Inattention Trajectories From Age 17 Months to 8 Years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(12), 1267-1275. DOI: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.138
A new online database called AutismKB offers a quick way to find the evidence linking genes to autism.You can read up on it in a paper describing the project.You can browse by chromosome or gene name, it includes data on all kinds of genetic variants from SNPs to CNVs and it gives each variant a score according to the strength of the evidence. I haven't had a chance to really tell how useful these scores are, but there's an option to create your own score based on how much weight you give differ........ Read more »
Xu LM, Li JR, Huang Y, Zhao M, Tang X, & Wei L. (2011) AutismKB: an evidence-based knowledgebase of autism genetics. Nucleic acids research. PMID: 22139918
Brown and colleagues completed a cross-sectional study to determine whether people with MAI or FAI exhibited different hip biomechanics during a stop-jump task compared with "copers”.... Read more »
Brown CN, Guskiewicz KM, Marhsall SW, & Padua DA. (2011) Hip Kinematics During a Stop-Jump Task in Patients with Chronic Ankle Instability. Journal of Athletic Training, 46(5), 461-471. info:/
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