by Shefali Sabharanjak, PhD in Brain Blogger
When it comes to substance abuse like smoking or abuse of intoxicating drugs, it is very difficult to determine what a “safe” limit of exposure is. Quite often, the initial exposure to mood altering substances like nicotine occurs during the teenage years. The period of adolescence is marked by a tendency towards risk-taking behavior which [...]... Read more »
Adriani W, Macrì S, Pacifici R, & Laviola G. (2002) Peculiar vulnerability to nicotine oral self-administration in mice during early adolescence. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 27(2), 212-24. PMID: 12093595
Counotte DS, Goriounova NA, Moretti M, Smoluch MT, Irth H, Clementi F, Schoffelmeer AN, Mansvelder HD, Smit AB, Gotti C.... (2012) Adolescent nicotine exposure transiently increases high-affinity nicotinic receptors and modulates inhibitory synaptic transmission in rat medial prefrontal cortex. FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 26(5), 1810-20. PMID: 22308197
Goriounova NA, & Mansvelder HD. (2012) Nicotine exposure during adolescence alters the rules for prefrontal cortical synaptic plasticity during adulthood. Frontiers in synaptic neuroscience, 3. PMID: 22876231
Goriounova NA, & Mansvelder HD. (2012) Nicotine exposure during adolescence leads to short- and long-term changes in spike timing-dependent plasticity in rat prefrontal cortex. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 32(31), 10484-93. PMID: 22855798
Kawai HD, Kang HA, & Metherate R. (2011) Heightened nicotinic regulation of auditory cortex during adolescence. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 31(40), 14367-77. PMID: 21976522
Kota D, Robinson SE, & Imad Damaj M. (2009) Enhanced nicotine reward in adulthood after exposure to nicotine during early adolescence in mice. Biochemical pharmacology, 78(7), 873-9. PMID: 19576867
ScienceRewired is a philanthropic initiative that aims to promote public engagement in science through digital and social technologies. Their mission is to aid non-technical science practitioners and the digital domain in working together, to look at science from new perspectives while helping educate and empower individuals to create significant positive change in the world. Their focus spreads across science education, science communication and citizen science initiatives – what’s not to........ Read more »
Khatib F., Cooper S., Tyka M. D., Xu K., Makedon I., Popovic Z., Baker D., & Players F. (2011) From the Cover: Algorithm discovery by protein folding game players. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(47), 18953. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1115898108
Wiggins Andrea, & Crowston Kevin. (2011) From Conservation to Crowdsourcing: A Typology of Citizen Science. System Sciences, 10. DOI: 10.1109/HICSS.2011.207
It comes as no surprise that the earlier eating disordered individuals receive treatment, the higher the likelihood that they will make a full recovery. In other words, the duration of the illness is inversely proportional with the likelihood of full recovery.
The problem is that a lot of eating disorders are not caught early. That a lot of people don’t have access to the treatment they need. Insurance will not cover it, their doctors don’t think it is a problem or won’t ........ Read more »
Wonderlich S, Mitchell JE, Crosby RD, Myers TC, Kadlec K, Lahaise K, Swan-Kremeier L, Dokken J, Lange M, Dinkel J.... (2012) Minimizing and treating chronicity in the eating disorders: a clinical overview. The International Journal of Eating Disorders, 45(4), 467-75. PMID: 22271525
A team of British neuroscientists led by the (in)famous David Nutt says that magic mushrooms offer a new theory of psychosis: Functional Connectivity Measures After Psilocybin Inform a Novel Hypothesis of Early PsychosisIt's a reanalysis of a study from earlier this year, which got quite a lot of attention, in which 15 volunteers were injected with psilocybin - the major active hallucinogenic ingredient in 'magic mushrooms' - during an fMRI scan.In a nutshell, the rather interesting proposal in ........ Read more »
Carhart-Harris RL, Leech R, Erritzoe D, Williams TM, Stone JM, Evans J, Sharp DJ, Feilding A, Wise RG, & Nutt DJ. (2012) Functional Connectivity Measures After Psilocybin Inform a Novel Hypothesis of Early Psychosis. Schizophrenia bulletin. PMID: 23044373
Artificial playing surfaces are frequently used in athletics due to their cost-effectiveness and all-weather benefits. However, the question remains whether or not these surfaces affect injury rates. Several studies have demonstrated an increased rate of injury on artificial turf, where others have shown that there is no difference. These two papers by Dragoo and Hershman investigate this concept, and pay particular attention to “third generation” or infill artificial surfaces whi........ Read more »
Dragoo JL, Braun HJ, & Harris AH. (2012) The effect of playing surface on the incidence of ACL injuries in National Collegiate Athletic Association American Football. The Knee. PMID: 22920310
Hershman EB, Anderson R, Bergfeld JA, Bradley JP, Coughlin MJ, Johnson RJ, Spindler KP, Wojtys E, Powell JW, & for the National Football League Injury and Safety Panel. (2012) An Analysis of Specific Lower Extremity Injury Rates on Grass and FieldTurf Playing Surfaces in National Football League Games: 2000-2009 Seasons. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(10), 2200-2205. PMID: 22972855
Childhood obesity is a growing health problem. Since 1980, the proportion of overweighted children has almost tripled in the USA: nowadays approximately 17% of children and adolescents are obese. (Source: cdc.gov )
Common sense tells me that obesity is the result of too high calory intake... Read more »
de Ruyter JC, Olthof MR, Seidell JC, & Katan MB. (2012) A Trial of Sugar-free or Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Body Weight in Children. The New England journal of medicine. PMID: 22998340
Ebbeling CB, Feldman HA, Chomitz VR, Antonelli TA, Gortmaker SL, Osganian SK, & Ludwig DS. (2012) A Randomized Trial of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Adolescent Body Weight. The New England journal of medicine. PMID: 22998339
Qi Q, Chu AY, Kang JH, Jensen MK, Curhan GC, Pasquale LR, Ridker PM, Hunter DJ, Willett WC, Rimm EB.... (2012) Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Genetic Risk of Obesity. The New England journal of medicine. PMID: 22998338
Dr. Minh LeCong has been a proponent of epinephrine in cardiac arrest, but he is now realizing that the evidence in favor of epinephrine is weak, old, and limited to animal studies. In humans, the evidence for epinephrine is based on an unreasonable infatuation with the temporary production of a pulse.
... Read more »
Krishnamoorthy V, Hiller DB, Ripper R, Lin B, Vogel SM, Feinstein DL, Oswald S, Rothschild L, Hensel P, Rubinstein I.... (2012) Epinephrine Induces Rapid Deterioration in Pulmonary Oxygen Exchange in Intact, Anesthetized Rats: A Flow and Pulmonary Capillary Pressure-dependent Phenomenon. Anesthesiology, 117(4), 745-754. PMID: 22902967
Even if you did ask the Chinese soft-shelled turtle what's so great about excreting bodily waste through one's mouth, you would probably just get gurgling in reply. The animal spends a lot of time with its face underwater. But its unusual strategy may be what allowed it to move into its favorite swamps and ponds in the first place.
Pelodiscus sinensis lives in China and other parts of Asia, as well as more remote spots, such as Hawaii, where it was introduced by turtle-soup-eating immigrants........ Read more »
Yuen K. Ip, Ai M. Loong, Serene M. L. Lee, Jasmine L. Y. Ong, Wai P. Wong, & Shit F. Chew. (2012) The Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis, excretes urea mainly through the mouth instead of the kidney. Journal of Experimental Biology. DOI: 10.1242/jeb.068916
The paper I'm discussing today is so cool, I don't know how I missed it when it came out last July. As the name implies, gene therapy is a technique used to "fix" defective genes either by replacing them with fully functional ones or by silencing them with the use of antisense RNA. Defective genes either fail to produce the proteins they code for, or produce defective proteins, thus causing genetic disorders. A defective gene can be silenced (so that it will no longer produce the defective prote........ Read more »
Dan Zheng, David A. Giljohann, David L. Chen, Matthew D. Massich, Xiao-Qi Wang, Hristo Iordanov, Chad A. Mirkina, & Amy S. Paller. (2012) Topical delivery of siRNA-based spherical nucleic acid nanoparticle conjugates for gene regulation. PNAS. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1118425109
Our guts are filled with lots and lots of microbes (aka gut microbiota or microbiome). Recently, more and more research is pointing towards these tiny inhabitants of our digestive system as a very relevant factor in various aspects of our … Continue reading →... Read more »
Cryan, J.F., & Dinan, T.G. (2012) Mind-altering microorganisms: the impact of gut microbiota on brain and behaviour. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 701-712. DOI: 10.1038/nrn3346
It is known that mice are able to sing ultrasonic melodies, far above the hearing range of humans, but they may also be capable of adapting their voices and learning new tunes, according to new research published in PLOS ONE.... Read more »
Gustavo Arriaga, Eric P. Zhou, & Erich D. Jarvis. (2012) Of Mice, Birds, and Men: The Mouse Ultrasonic Song System Has Some Features Similar to Humans and Song-Learning Birds. PLOS ONE. info:/10.1371/journal.pone.0046610
by Marcia Malory, BA in Brain Blogger
In the 1962 novel A Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess, doctors attempt to cure a violent, murderous psychopath using psychological conditioning — forcing him to endure disturbing physical reactions while witnessing acts of violence. Today, neuroscientists are studying how we use our brains to make moral decisions, and what we can do for people who [...]... Read more »
Young L, & Dungan J. (2012) Where in the brain is morality? Everywhere and maybe nowhere. Social neuroscience, 7(1), 1-10. PMID: 21590587
The Hutterites are an isolated, religious “founder population,” similar to the Amish or Mennonites, descended from a group of about 1,200 settlers that migrated to North America from Europe in the late 19th century. They settled in South Dakota, and then spread to Montana and western Canada, forming several self-sufficient, communal agricultural colonies. Today’s Hutterites [...]... Read more »
Chong JX, Ouwenga R, Anderson RL, Waggoner DJ, & Ober C. (2012) A population-based study of autosomal-recessive disease-causing mutations in a founder population. American journal of human genetics, 91(4), 608-20. PMID: 22981120
Hello hello Mia!I'll come back to "cute" next week, but I want to stick with the topic you brought up. As you mentioned, tail docking and ear cropping regulations differ across the globe. Both practices are common here in the States, but the American Veterinary Medical Association, “encourages the elimination of ear cropping and tail docking from breed standards.” Even so, docking and cropping are often seen as normal parts of dog pedigree and sometimes built into breed standards:AKC Boxer B........ Read more »
Leaver , & Reimchen . (2008) Behavioural responses of Canis familiaris to different tail lengths of a remotely-controlled life-size dog replica. Behaviour, 145(3), 390. DOI: 10.1163/156853908783402894
Kubinyi Enikő, Miklósi Ádám, Kaplan Frédéric, Gácsi Márta, Topál József, & Csányi Vilmos. (2004) Social behaviour of dogs encountering AIBO, an animal-like robot in a neutral and in a feeding situation. Behavioural Processes, 65(3), 239. DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2003.10.003
Six month of blogging and I have yet to do a proper post on the prevalence of eating disorders. I think it is about time. I see all sorts of numbers thrown around, often depending on the purpose of the article and the author’s bias. Is it 1 in 1000, 1 in 100, 1 in 20 or maybe even 1 in 2? Who is right?
Well, it is a tricky question to answer.
The number depends on how the particular study was conducted. Here are some factors that may influence the final rates: the population being studi........ Read more »
Smink, F.R., van Hoeken, D., & Hoek, H.W. (2012) Epidemiology of eating disorders: incidence, prevalence and mortality rates. Current Psychiatry Reports, 14(4), 406-14. PMID: 22644309
Vampire bats have a bad reputation even though they were named for the undead human bloodsuckers, not the other way around. New evidence shows that vampire bats are helpful to humans; their saliva contains a powerful clot busting molecule that is proving to be better than tPA, and they may be helping to prevent rabies in Peruvians that are bitten. If only Count Dracula was as helpful.... Read more »
Medcalf RL. (2012) Desmoteplase: discovery, insights and opportunities for ischaemic stroke. Br J Pharmacol. . DOI: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01514.x
Amy T. Gilbert, Brett W. Petersen, Sergio Recuenco, Michael Niezgoda, Jorge Gómez, V. Alberto Laguna-Torres and Charles Rupprecht. (2012) Evidence of Rabies Virus Exposure among Humans in the Peruvian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0689
National registers for recording medical data are becoming increasingly prevalent. The purpose of these registers is to compile information on a large number of patients to detect flaws in surgical procedure, implants, grafts, etc. One such register is the Swedish National ACLRegister, which was begun in 2005. The Swedish National ACL Register contains information on primary reconstructions, revision ACL surgery, and knee reoperations for other reasons. Using this data, Alden and colleagues set ........ Read more »
Ahldén M, Samuelsson K, Sernert N, Forssblad M, Karlsson J, & Kartus J. (2012) The Swedish national anterior cruciate ligament register: a report on baseline variables and outcomes of surgery for almost 18,000 patients. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 40(10), 2230-5. PMID: 22962296
Using genetic information to improve human health represents the central goal of biomedical research. Achieving it won’t be easy, but from a simplistic perspective, requires three steps. Cataloging the full extent of genetic variation in cells, tissues, and individuals. Efforts like the HapMap and 1,000 Genomes project are tackling this part, and judging by the [...]... Read more »
One of the earlier papers on the subject, dating from 1996. Phylogenetic analysis powerfully describes evolutionary patterns, but until this paper its accuracy had not been tested in a real-world case. Such testing is still impossible for multicellular life. Virus, however, evolve so rapidly they can be monitored in real time. The authors analyze a [...]... Read more »
Leitner T, Escanilla D, Franzén C, Uhlén M, & Albert J. (1996) Accurate reconstruction of a known HIV-1 transmission history by phylogenetic tree analysis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93(20), 10864-9. PMID: 8855273
Urban legend has it that the cure for cancer is probably buried in the root of some obscure plant in the middle of the Amazon rainforest, and we just haven’t found it yet. While that’s overstating what any one medicine can do to fight what’s actually hundreds of different diseases, that doesn’t mean natural remedies [...]... Read more »
Jin HR, Zhao J, Zhang Z, Liao Y, Wang CZ, Huang WH, Li SP, He TC, Yuan CS, & Du W. (2012) The antitumor natural compound falcarindiol promotes cancer cell death by inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress. Cell death . PMID: 22914324
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