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  • January 9, 2013
  • 04:36 PM

Exposure to air pollutants during pregnancy linked to autism in children

by Sarah Stephen in An ecological oratorio

Vehicular air pollution could cause autism - Photo by Sarah StephenA recent study by Californian researchers indicates increased odds for developing autism in children whose mothers were exposed to ozone and particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5). Ozone and PM2.5 are associated with vehicular pollution and this study emphasizes the dangers posed by traffic pollutants to health in utero.The researchers used Los Angeles as a sample population. Mothers of over 7600 children between ages of 3........ Read more »

  • January 9, 2013
  • 12:25 PM

Early Brain Inflammation in Lupus (SLE)

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

I previously reviewed a brain research imaging study of patients with systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE).  This study found evidence of disruption of brain connectivity markers even before any clinical brain symptoms.SLE is a multi-organ disease known to produce significant neuropsychiatric symptoms.  These symptoms do not affect all patients with SLE as the brain effects are highly variable in this disorder.  Studying patients with early SLE without brain-related symptoms provide........ Read more »

Ramage, A., Fox, P., Brey, R., Narayana, S., Cykowski, M., Naqibuddin, M., Sampedro, M., Holliday, S., Franklin, C., Wallace, D.... (2011) Neuroimaging evidence of white matter inflammation in newly diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis , 63(10), 3048-3057. DOI: 10.1002/art.30458  

  • January 9, 2013
  • 09:37 AM

Heat along with Chemotherapy could help to treat with mesothelioma

by Usman Paracha in SayPeople

Researchers have recently published a case report of 61 years old Japanese, who is a “disease-free survivor of malignant pleural mesothelioma” for seven years utilizing only heat therapy and chemotherapy.

This case report has been published online in the Journal of Medical Case Reports.

This Japanese man, with five years of asbestos exposure, went to hospital for chest pain. His scan showed thickening on the right lining around the lungs and some small nodules. Moreover, a tumo........ Read more »

  • January 9, 2013
  • 09:21 AM

Video Tip of the Week: the new and improved OMIM®

by Mary in OpenHelix

For this week’s Tip of the Week we highlight our new tutorial on OMIM, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. If you haven’t looked at OMIM for a while, or if you usually only think about it as a link in some other database you use, look again. There’s more there than you realize. OMIM is [...]... Read more »

  • January 9, 2013
  • 09:20 AM

How belly fat differs from thigh fat—and why it matters

by Sanford- Burnham in Beaker

Researchers discover that the genes active in a person’s belly fat are significantly different than those in his or her thigh fat, a finding that could shift the way we approach unwanted belly fat—from banishing it to relocating it.... Read more »

Karastergiou K, Fried SK, Xie H, Lee MJ, Divoux A, Rosencrantz MA, Chang RJ, & Smith SR. (2013) Distinct developmental signatures of human abdominal and gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue depots. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, 98(1), 362-71. PMID: 23150689  

  • January 9, 2013
  • 08:20 AM

Haploid, Diploid, And Those You Should Avoid

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Mammals are diploid organisms. Triploid and tetraploid fetuses are the largest single cause of spontaneous abortions. Yet one mammal, the red vizcacha rat (T. berrarae) survives as a tetraploid mammal. New evidence indicates that the T. berrerae is a tetraploid hybrid of diploid species of rat, not a result of meiotic or mitotic duplication in a single ancestor. The key to surviving tetaploidy in this rat may have implications for cancer treatment.

Treatment induced cancer senescence (TCS) ha........ Read more »

Suárez-Villota, E., Vargas, R., Marchant, C., Torres, J., Köhler, N., Núñez, J., de la Fuente, R., Page, J., Gallardo, M., & Jenkins, G. (2012) Distribution of repetitive DNAs and the hybrid origin of the red vizcacha rat (Octodontidae). Genome, 55(2), 105-117. DOI: 10.1139/G11-084  

Wang, Q., Wu, P., Dong, D., Ivanova, I., Chu, E., Zeliadt, S., Vesselle, H., & Wu, D. (2012) Polyploidy road to therapy-induced cellular senescence and escape. International Journal of Cancer. DOI: 10.1002/ijc.27810  

  • January 9, 2013
  • 12:03 AM

Wii Pre-habilitation

by Nicole Cattano in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

Measuring ground reaction and contact pressure forces can be a time-intensive and expensive burden that is often difficult to justify for clinical uses; for example, injury prevention or performance improvements among the athletic population. Recent technological advancements within video gaming systems and the development of the Wii balance board may make this type of analysis more readily available to clinicians and patients in sports medicine. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to inv........ Read more »

  • January 8, 2013
  • 06:12 PM

A History Lesson from Genes: Using DNA to Tell Us How Populations Change

by Matt Wood in ScienceLife

When Charles Darwin first sketched how species evolved by natural selection, he drew what looked like a tree. The diagram started at a central point with a common ancestor, then the lines spread apart as organisms evolved and separated into distinct species. In the 175 years since, scientists have come to agree that Darwin’s original [...]... Read more »

Joseph K. Pickrell, & Jonathan K. Pritchard. (2012) Inference of population splits and mixtures from genome-wide allele frequency data. PLoS Genet 8(11): e1002967 (2012). arXiv: 1206.2332v1

  • January 8, 2013
  • 05:19 PM

Autism and ID: Born again?

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

The recent papers published by Amanda Langridge and colleagues* (open-access) and Venla Lehti and colleagues** set some cogs running in my grey/pink matter recently with their research focus on our very earliest days and what (if any) risk for the autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) there may be when things don't go as smoothly as expected during that magical nine months and just before/after.A new child is Björn @ Wikipedia  I've previously talked about factors during pregnancy and........ Read more »

Amanda T. Langridge, Emma J. Glasson, Natasha Nassar, Peter Jacoby, Craig Pennell, Ronald Hagan, Jenny Bourke, Helen Leonard, & Fiona J. Stanley. (2013) Maternal Conditions and Perinatal Characteristics Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability. PLoS ONE. info:/10.1371/journal.pone.0050963

  • January 8, 2013
  • 11:37 AM

The USA Dream for IMGs: Coming to an end? Analysing the 2012 Match

by Pranab Chatterjee in Scepticemia

My attention was drawn to an article in the JAMA today (1) by one of my friends who is actively pursuing the USMLE route. And after reading this, I guess I have to admit that one now has to make haste in order to prevent waste. Now I have long been wanting to write about [...]... Read more »

Traverso G, & McMahon GT. (2012) Residency training and international medical graduates: coming to America no more. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 308(21), 2193-4. PMID: 23212494  

  • January 8, 2013
  • 09:28 AM

High-impact Journals for Genetics and Genomics

by Daniel Koboldt in Massgenomics

One of the burdens of the information age is that there’s far more content produced than could ever be read by the population. This is categorically true of blogging, but also a fact of research publication. With hundreds of academic journals (ISI indexes over 11,000 science and social science journals) and thousands of articles published [...]... Read more »

  • January 7, 2013
  • 10:34 PM

Dopamine and Anorexia Nervosa: Tackling the Myths – Part II (Contradictory Findings in Preclinical Studies)

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders

This is part II in my series of posts on the role of dopamine in anorexia nervosa. (You can find the first part, which covers the basics of dopamine signalling, here.) In this post I’m going to discuss the findings from preclinical studies (studies in animal models).
I don’t think I’ve talked about animal models of anorexia nervosa before on the blog, but believe or not, they exist. The most well-known one is called activity-based anorexia (ABA). ABA works like this: ........ Read more »

Kontis, D., & Theochari, E. (2012) Dopamine in anorexia nervosa. Behavioural Pharmacology, 23(5 and 6), 496-515. DOI: 10.1097/FBP.0b013e328357e115  

  • January 7, 2013
  • 02:19 AM

delaying dementia without pills

by Richard Kunert in Brain's Idea

‘What’s this? A potato?’ asked my friend’s grandfather during lunch. As always, he used his charming grin and characteristically loud voice. Even though the entire conversation was in Argentine Spanish – which I had learned only a short while before – I understood the oddity of the situation at once. Instead of a potato, the [...]... Read more »

Akbaraly, T., Portet, F., Fustinoni, S., Dartigues, J., Artero, S., Rouaud, O., Touchon, J., Ritchie, K., & Berr, C. (2009) Leisure activities and the risk of dementia in the elderly: Results from the Three-City Study. Neurology, 73(11), 854-861. DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181b7849b  

Bickel H, & Kurz A. (2009) Education, occupation, and dementia: the Bavarian school sisters study. Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders, 27(6), 548-56. PMID: 19590201  

Rentz DM, Locascio JJ, Becker JA, Moran EK, Eng E, Buckner RL, Sperling RA, & Johnson KA. (2010) Cognition, reserve, and amyloid deposition in normal aging. Annals of neurology, 67(3), 353-64. PMID: 20373347  

Scarmeas, N., Albert, S.M., Manly, J.J., & Stern, Y. (2005) Education and rates of cognitive decline in incident Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery , 77(3), 308-316. DOI: 10.1136/jnnp.2005.072306  

  • January 7, 2013
  • 12:04 AM

Hard to Make Connections after a Concussion?….Blame it on the Default-Mode Network

by Jane McDevitt in Sports Medicine Research (SMR): In the Lab & In the Field

The default-mode network comprises several brain regions (i.e., posterior cingulate cortex, inferior parietal and medial prefrontal cortex) and is involved in brain activity at rest. When this network is altered higher cognitive functions (e.g., memory) become disrupted. Similar dysfunctions are symptoms from a mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). Therefore, Zhou and colleagues investigated the integrity of the default-mode network among 23 patients with MTBI and 18 healthy control participants.... Read more »

Zhou Y, Milham MP, Lui YW, Miles L, Reaume J, Sodickson DK, Grossman RI, & Ge Y. (2012) Default-mode network disruption in mild traumatic brain injury. Radiology, 265(3), 882-92. PMID: 23175546  

  • January 6, 2013
  • 09:31 PM

Have We Killed Half of our Soldiers with Cigarettes?

by Dirk Hanson in Addiction Inbox

Two long-term studies yield grim stats, and women are no exception.

We know that smoking kills. But until the results of 50 years’ worth of observations on British male smokers was published by Richard Doll and coworkers in the British Journal of Medicine in 2004, we didn’t know how many.  Cigarettes will kill at least half of those who smoke them past the age of 30—possibly more. In older, specific populations, possibly as many as 2/3.

It took a prospective study of more ........ Read more »

  • January 6, 2013
  • 07:49 AM

Gliadin antibodies in schizophrenia replicated

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

As per the primary message on this blog, I'm a great believer in science and the scientific method as a route to informing the public at large about lots of different issues. A recent opinion piece in Chemistry World by Prof. Steve Fuller kinda coincided with my view of science: an informer, not an instructor.Outside of the notion of science measuring probabilities over absolutes, one of the other great pillars of the scientific method is the concept of replication: that is for a finding to........ Read more »

Okusaga O, Yolken RH, Langenberg P, Sleemi A, Kelly DL, Vaswani D, Giegling I, Hartmann AM, Konte B, Friedl M.... (2013) Elevated gliadin antibody levels in individuals with schizophrenia. The world journal of biological psychiatry : the official journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry. PMID: 23282016  

  • January 6, 2013
  • 06:59 AM

Chapter 1: Biomedical Knowledge Integration

by Perikis Livas in Chilon

The modern biomedical research and healthcare delivery domains have seen an unparalleled increase in the rate of innovation and novel technologies over the past several decades. Catalyzed by paradigm-shifting public and private programs focusing upon the formation and delivery of genomic and personalized medicine, the need for high-throughput and integrative approaches to the collection, management, and analysis of heterogeneous data sets has become imperative. This need is particularly pressing........ Read more »

  • January 6, 2013
  • 05:37 AM

Artwork During Recovery From Encephalitis

by Neuroskeptic in Neuroskeptic

I recently wrote about anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis, a neurological disorder that often manifests with psychiatric symptoms, such as depression and hallucinations.The latest American Journal of Psychiatry features a strange series of four drawings made by a 15 year old girl during an episode of the disease, which presented as psychotic symptoms but later progressed to severe insomnia and epilepsy before it was diagnosed and treated."As she gradually recovered we asked her to draw something. S........ Read more »

Esseveld MM, van de Riet EH, Cuypers L, & Schieveld JN. (2013) Drawings During Neuropsychiatric Recovery From Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis. The American journal of psychiatry, 170(1), 21-2. PMID: 23288386  

  • January 5, 2013
  • 07:59 PM

Dopamine and Anorexia Nervosa: Tackling the Myths – Part 1 (Intro)

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders

There is this prevalent myth on tumblr eating disorder blogs that increased dopamine (DA) receptor activity or increased DA signalling causes anorexia nervosa. It has left me quite perplexed, as I have never come across a single paper that has shown increased DA activity causes anorexia nervosa. My research for this post also left me empty-handed. I have no idea where this myth comes from, but I thought I’d blog about what research on DA activity in anorexia has shown.&........ Read more »

Kontis, D., & Theochari, E. (2012) Dopamine in anorexia nervosa. Behavioural Pharmacology, 23(5 and 6), 496-515. DOI: 10.1097/FBP.0b013e328357e115  

  • January 5, 2013
  • 05:01 AM

Where Are We On Blastocystis Subtypes?

by Christen Rune Stensvold in Blastocystis Parasite Blog

Nine subtypes have been found in humans, but some of them only on rare occasions. A recent study going out from London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and led by Dr Alfellani and published just now in Acta Tropica looked at 356 Blastocystis sequences from samples from the UK and Libya, but also from sub-Saharan Africa, namely Liberia and Nigeria.... Read more »

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