Fernando CamargoCredit Harvard Stem Cell Institute researchers at Boston Children's Hospital have new evidence in mice that it may be possible to repair a chronically diseased liver by forcing mature liver cells to revert back to a stem cell-like state. The researchers, led by Fernando Camargo, PhD, arumbled upon this discovery while investigating whether a biochemical cascade called Hippo, which controls how big the liver grows, also affects cell fate.The unexpected answer, appearing in th........ Read more »
Yimlamai D, Christodoulou C, Galli GG, Yanger K, Pepe-Mooney B, Gurung B, Shrestha K, Cahan P, Stanger BZ, & Camargo FD. (2014) Hippo Pathway Activity Influences Liver Cell Fate. Cell, 157(6), 1324-1338. PMID: 24906150
Blue Whale Alert Smoking and other addictions go hand in hand. In treatment populations, it’s usual to find that about 80-90% of clients are current smokers, compared to 20% of say the Scottish population. Nobody has done a survey on smoking prevalence in recovering populations in Scotland, but I would guess that for smoking in recovery [...]
The post Smoking in recovery – the Blue Whale in the room appeared first on Recovery Review.
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Gulliver SB, Kamholz BW, & Helstrom AW. (2006) Smoking cessation and alcohol abstinence: what do the data tell us?. Alcohol research , 29(3), 208-12. PMID: 17373411
Tobacco smoking and nicotine dependence produce harmful effects on the brain.Some of these effects are related to direct effects on vascular health. Vascular changes seen with smoking are known to contribute to increased risk for stroke and dementia.Advances in brain imaging techniques allow for more direct study on smoking's effect on specific brain structures.Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a relatively recent imaging tool allowing for study of brain white matter function.Brain white matter ........ Read more »
Umene-Nakano W, Yoshimura R, Kakeda S, Watanabe K, Hayashi K, Nishimura J, Takahashi H, Moriya J, Ide S, Ueda I.... (2014) Abnormal white matter integrity in the corpus callosum among smokers: tract-based spatial statistics. PloS one, 9(2). PMID: 24516568
Autoantibodies - that is, antibodies directed at the body itself - are no stranger to autism research. I've talked about various types of autoantibody being detected in elevated levels in certain groups and cases of autism (see here for example). The paper by Gehan Mostafa and colleagues  adds to the roll call with their findings: "The seropositivity of anti ds-DNA and/or ANA [antinuclear antibodies] in autistic children was 42%".Charge ! @ Wikipedia Before progressin........ Read more »
Amongst the arguments around interdisciplinary programmes are discussions about how long or intense a programme should be (the “dose”), the content and what is or isn’t necessary within them, and personnel or who should or shouldn’t be involved. I thought I’d take a little look at some of these arguments.... Read more »
Broderick, J., Keefe, F., Bruckenthal, P., Junghaenel, D., Schneider, S., Schwartz, J., Kaell, A., Caldwell, D., McKee, D., Reed, S.... (2014) Nurse Practitioners can effectively deliver Pain Coping Skills Training to osteoarthritis patients with chronic pain: A randomized, controlled trial. PAIN®. DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2014.05.024
Kaiser, U., Deckert, S., Kopkow, C., Schmitt, J., & Sabatowski, R. (2014) Dose or content? Effectiveness of pain rehabilitation programs for patients with chronic low back pain: a systematic review. Waterschoot et al., Pain 155 (2014) 179-189. PAIN®. DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2014.06.002
Waterschoot, F., Dijkstra, P., Hollak, N., de Vries, H., Geertzen, J., & Reneman, M. (2014) Dose or content? Effectiveness of pain rehabilitation programs for patients with chronic low back pain: A systematic review. PAIN®, 155(1), 179-189. DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.10.006
Anabolic steroids are used to enhance body image. I took a look at this recently. Their use is fairly common in gyms. A study of almost 800 gay men attending gyms in London found that one in seven had used steroids in the last year and almost 12% had injected. All reported side effects including [...]
The post Anabolic steroids – ignorance is not bliss appeared first on Recovery Review.
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Kimergard, A., & McVeigh, J. (2014) Environments, risk and health harms: a qualitative investigation into the illicit use of anabolic steroids among people using harm reduction services in the UK. BMJ Open, 4(6). DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-005275
Bolding G, Sherr L, & Elford J. (2002) Use of anabolic steroids and associated health risks among gay men attending London gyms. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 97(2), 195-203. PMID: 11860391
A speculative post this one, on the paper by Hao Ding and colleagues  (open-access here) looking at how, in a rodent model of colitis, homocysteine (the big 'H') might play some part in aggravating "inflammatory damage" potentially through promotion of some of the matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-2 and MMP-9. The words: "Hcy [homocysteine] can increase intestinal permeability" added to the interest.If you're used to reading about autism research on this blog, you might be wondering why on ........ Read more »
Ding H, Mei Q, Gan HZ, Cao LY, Liu XC, & Xu JM. (2014) Effect of homocysteine on intestinal permeability in rats with experimental colitis, and its mechanism. Gastroenterology report. PMID: 24787389
Okay boys and girls, time to grab those love handles and hold on tight, because it’s another round of weight loss science fact. With a little luck [and a little […]... Read more »
Liu, M., Bai, J., He, S., Villarreal, R., Hu, D., Zhang, C., Yang, X., Liang, H., Slaga, T., Yu, Y.... (2014) Grb10 Promotes Lipolysis and Thermogenesis by Phosphorylation-Dependent Feedback Inhibition of mTORC1. Cell Metabolism, 19(6), 967-980. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.03.018
No, I am not suggesting that a gluten-free diet is the new nootropic (cognitive enhancer) of choice with the title of this post despite previous media headlines on the subject."Got gluten?"☺ @ Wikipedia I am however very, very interested in the results reported by Irene Lichtwark and colleagues  (open-access here) which suggested that in "newly diagnosed coeliac disease, cognitive performance improves with adherence to the gluten-free diet in parallel to mucosal healing........ Read more »
Lichtwark IT, Newnham ED, Robinson SR, Shepherd SJ, Hosking P, Gibson PR, & Yelland GW. (2014) Cognitive impairment in coeliac disease improves on a gluten-free diet and correlates with histological and serological indices of disease severity. Alimentary pharmacology . PMID: 24889390
Case Western Reserve researchers have discovered landmarks within pluripotent stem cells that guide how they develop to serve different purposes within the body. This breakthrough offers promise that scientists eventually will be able to direct stem cells in ways that prevent disease or repair damage from injury or illness. The study and its results appear in the June 5 edition of the journal Cell Stem Cell.Pluripotent stem cells are so named because they can evolve into any of the cell types th........ Read more »
Factor, D., Corradin, O., Zentner, G., Saiakhova, A., Song, L., Chenoweth, J., McKay, R., Crawford, G., Scacheri, P., & Tesar, P. (2014) Epigenomic Comparison Reveals Activation of “Seed” Enhancers during Transition from Naive to Primed Pluripotency. Cell Stem Cell, 14(6), 854-863. DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2014.05.005
Valter LongoCredit: Dietmar QuistorfIn the first evidence of a natural intervention triggering stem cell-based regeneration of an organ or system, a study in the June 5 issue of the Cell Press journal Cell Stem Cell shows that cycles of prolonged fasting not only protect against immune system damage -- a major side effect of chemotherapy -- but also induce immune system regeneration, shifting stem cells from a dormant state to a state of self-renewal.Results from both mice and a Phase 1 human cl........ Read more »
Cheng, C., Adams, G., Perin, L., Wei, M., Zhou, X., Lam, B., Da Sacco, S., Mirisola, M., Quinn, D., Dorff, T.... (2014) Prolonged Fasting Reduces IGF-1/PKA to Promote Hematopoietic-Stem-Cell-Based Regeneration and Reverse Immunosuppression. Cell Stem Cell, 14(6), 810-823. DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2014.04.014
Directed Network Wiring, a new method to simplify the study of protein networks, is illustrated.Proteins are responsible for the vast majority of the cellular functions that shape life, but like guests at a crowded dinner party, they interact transiently and in complex networks, making it difficult to determine which specific interactions are most important.Now, researchers from the University of Chicago say they have pioneered a new technique that simplifies the study of protein networks and id........ Read more »
Yasui, N., Findlay, G., Gish, G., Hsiung, M., Huang, J., Tucholska, M., Taylor, L., Smith, L., Boldridge, W., Koide, A.... (2014) Directed Network Wiring Identifies a Key Protein Interaction in Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation. Molecular Cell. DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2014.05.002
Foot arch height and muscle strength... Read more »
Morita N, Yamauchi J, Kurihara T, Fukuoka R, Otsuka M, Okuda T, Ishizawa N, Nakajima T, Nakamichi R, Matsuno S.... (2014) Toe Flexor Strength and Foot Arch Height in Children. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. PMID: 24895943
by amikulak in Daily Observations
If you’ve ever watched the T.V. show Monk, you know that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by a fixation on certain thoughts and a need to engage in repetitive behaviors, […]... Read more »
D'Olimpio, F., & Mancini, F. (2014) Role of Deontological Guilt in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder-Like Checking and Washing Behaviors. Clinical Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1177/2167702614529549
Michael RobertsOne of the biggest challenges for medical researchers studying the effectiveness of stem cell therapies is that transplants or grafts of cells are often rejected by the hosts.This rejection can render experiments useless, making research into potentially life-saving treatments a long and difficult process. Now, researchers at the University of Missouri have shown that a new line of genetically modified pigs will host transplanted cells without the risk of rejection.“The rejectio........ Read more »
Lee, K., Kwon, D., Ezashi, T., Choi, Y., Park, C., Ericsson, A., Brown, A., Samuel, M., Park, K., Walters, E.... (2014) Engraftment of human iPS cells and allogeneic porcine cells into pigs with inactivated RAG2 and accompanying severe combined immunodeficiency. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 111(20), 7260-7265. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1406376111
Rachel Okolicsanyi A researcher from the Queensland University of Technology's is hoping to unlock the potential of mesenchymal stem cells as a way of repairing neural damage to the brain.Rachel Okolicsanyi, from the Genomics Research Centre at QUT's Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, said unlike other cells in the body which were able to divide and replicate, once most types of brain cells died, the damage was deemed irreversible.Ms Okolicsanyi is manipulating mesenchymal ........ Read more »
Okolicsanyi, R., Griffiths, L., & Haupt, L. (2014) Mesenchymal stem cells, neural lineage potential, heparan sulfate proteoglycans and the matrix. Developmental Biology, 388(1), 1-10. DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2014.01.024
Over the past few months, there has been an unprecedented outbreak of the lethal Ebola virus in West Africa. Jon Fuhrmann tells us about the outbreak and efforts to control the virus. Ebola virus disease (EVD) kills up to 90% … Continue reading →... Read more »
Gatherer D. (2014) The 2014 Ebola virus disease outbreak in west Africa. The Journal of general virology. PMID: 24795448
I note that the recent paper by Frank Duffy and colleagues  (open-access here) seems to be receiving quite a bit of interest, and their suggestion that corticosteroid therapy might be something to look at more scientifically when it comes to some cases of regressive autism. The fact that the Duffy paper also got it's own commentary  made me think that this is something I should be discussing on this blog.So, a few details about the Duffy paper bearing in mind it is open-access:Well, f........ Read more »
Duffy FH, Shankardass A, McAnulty GB, Eksioglu YZ, Coulter D, Rotenberg A, & Als H. (2014) Corticosteroid therapy in regressive autism: a retrospective study of effects on the Frequency Modulated Auditory Evoked Response (FMAER), language, and behavior. BMC neurology, 14(1), 70. PMID: 24885033
A big topic at ICED, and one that seems to continually resurface, is treatment professionals in recovery. One the one hand, many see healthcare professionals with a history of eating disorders as possessing a kind of empathy that may be inaccessible to those who have not “been there.” On the other, some argue that this history complicates the patient-professional relationship in potentially detrimental ways.
You’ll find proponents of both sides of this debate from both professional a........ Read more »
Warren CS, Schafer KJ, Crowley ME, & Olivardia R. (2013) Treatment providers with a personal history of eating pathology: a qualitative examination of common experiences. Eating disorders, 21(4), 295-309. PMID: 23767671
Learning mathematics is a complex process that forms a key element in modern education.Significant mathematics learning difficulties emerge in 5 to 10 per cent of all elementary and secondary education students.Struggling to acquire skills in mathematics is more than a single deficit and appears to involve multiple cognitive skills.Giannis Karagiannakis and colleagures recently summarized what is known about mathematics learning disorders and proposed four subtypes. I will summarize these subtyp........ Read more »
Karagiannakis G, Baccaglini-Frank A, & Papadatos Y. (2014) Mathematical learning difficulties subtypes classification. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 57. PMID: 24574997
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