If you never got around to buying Peter Suber‘s book “for busy people” about Open Access (OA) publishing , you might be pleased to learn that it’s now available under an Open Access license.... Read more »
Clair, K. (2013) Kevin Michael Clair reviews Open Access, by Peter Suber. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 39(1), 94. DOI: 10.1016/j.acalib.2012.11.017
You see them in sunflowers and artichokes. The familiar, concentric spiral-shaped Fibonacci sequence is part of a lot of flowering plants. These patterns precisely follow the Fibonacci sequence (1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8), in which each digit (once you move along) is the sum of the previous two. But until now, nobody really knew how plants knew to make these mathematically precise patterns.... Read more »
Pennybacker, M., & Newell, A. (2013) Phyllotaxis, Pushed Pattern-Forming Fronts, and Optimal Packing. Physical Review Letters, 110(24). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.248104
In the year 2006 'google' was officially declared a verb in Oxford Dictionary and Merriam Webster. But startups have not given up on building search engines. That same year Facebook opened its doors to users over the age of 13, preparing for exponential growth spurt. The list of startups working on yet another social network and lining up to present their sites at Silicon Valley New Tech Meetup kept growing too. And so were the crowds attending the meetups - as everybody wanted to see the next Google or Facebook. Or get a free pizza.In 2009, it looked like both search and social bubbles were bursting. At least judging by the pitches and taglines. Favorite startup words now were mobile, twitter and monetization. 2009 was, indeed, the year of mobile, twitter... and ponzi schemes. It was the year when Waze Mobile launched internationally and Tumblr released their iPhone app. But the Social Digital era has only just begun. Web was still ripe for more social experience and new startups were fighting for the audience, and fighting against the audience fatigue. The question was whether they could build a business off that audience or whether that audience will be worth an acquisition by the likes of Google or Yahoo. From dancing in the 90s to clicking in the 2010sShifting focus of social networks, as judged by the SVNEWTech pitches The common uses of social networking are promotion (personal or business-related), learning and entertainment. Text was the starting point for broadcasting and marketing ourselves via the Internet. Technologies were evolving and, as shown in the graph below, so were audio- and visual features of social networks, until they merged into video and movie-sharing capabilities. GPS-enabled smartphones gave rise to location-based services and networks focused on local - places, rideshares and travel information. Networks could serve as a self-updating address book and their purpose was shifting from keeping in touch with old friends to finding new ones, increasingly focusing on finding business partners and opportunities. Startups were transitioning from virtual worlds to virtual goods, becoming less interested in just chatting and more interested in handling money - from social landing, to fundraising and "helping retailers to serve us better". What's next? Despite the challenging funding climate, Silicon Valley startups will keep trying new things, mixing and matching new needs and technologies. After all, the combinations provide endless choices, and the possibilities are endless. REFERENCESCantor M, & Whitehead H (2013). The interplay between social networks and culture: theoretically and among whales and dolphins. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 368 (1618) PMID: 23569288Panek, Elliot T., Yioryos Nardis, and Sara Konrath. "Defining social networking sites and measuring their use: How narcissists differ in their use of Facebook and Twitter." Computers in Human Behavior 29.5 (2013): 2004-2012.Doreian, Patrick, and Frans Stokman, eds. Evolution of social networks. Vol. 1. Routledge, 2013.... Read more »
Cantor M, & Whitehead H. (2013) The interplay between social networks and culture: theoretically and among whales and dolphins. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 368(1618), 20120340. PMID: 23569288
During the last several months a number of new battery technologies has been proposed by different research institutions. Scientists are focusing their attention on finding ways to make batteries store more energy and recharge faster, while at the same time reducing environmental risks posed by the chemicals that are used in batteries.... Read more »
MOON, J., MUNAKATA, H., KAJIHARA, K., & KANAMURA, K. (2013) Hydrothermal Synthesis of Manganese Dioxide Nanoparticles as Cathode Material for Rechargeable Batteries. Electrochemistry, 81(1), 2-6. DOI: 10.5796/electrochemistry.81.2
Zhou, G., Wang, D., Li, F., Hou, P., Yin, L., Liu, C., Lu, G., Gentle, I., & Cheng, H. (2012) A flexible nanostructured sulphur–carbon nanotube cathode with high rate performance for Li-S batteries. Energy , 5(10), 8901. DOI: 10.1039/c2ee22294a
Kravchyk, K., Protesescu, L., Bodnarchuk, M., Krumeich, F., Yarema, M., Walter, M., Guntlin, C., & Kovalenko, M. (2013) Monodisperse and Inorganically Capped Sn and Sn/SnO2 Nanocrystals for High-Performance Li-Ion Battery Anodes Nanocrystals for High-Performance Li-Ion Battery Anodes . Journal of the American Chemical Society, 135(11), 4199-4202. DOI: 10.1021/ja312604r
Augustyn, V., Come, J., Lowe, M., Kim, J., Taberna, P., Tolbert, S., Abruña, H., Simon, P., & Dunn, B. (2013) High-rate electrochemical energy storage through Li intercalation pseudocapacitance. Nature Materials. DOI: 10.1038/nmat3601
A UW-Madison electrical engineer has proposed a design for dye-sensitized solar cells that can at the same time generate power and work as a solar energy storage system.... Read more »
Zhang, X., Huang, X., Li, C., & Jiang, H. (2013) Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell with Energy Storage Function through PVDF/ZnO Nanocomposite Counter Electrode. Advanced Materials. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301088
Pain is one of the most difficult things to quantify. The doctor can ask you: How would you classify the pain from 0 to 10, being 10 the most painful and 0 not painful? and you might answer with a number, but the scale is subjective. So far, there was no method to actually quantify pain. fMRI (functional MRI) might change that.A recent study found a way to predict the pain intensity with fMRI. Basically, several volunteers (I'm not sure how much did this study paid, but I don't see myself volunteering for a pain study...) were scanned while thermal-induced pain was being applied. Using machine-learning techniques, the scientist found patterns of activity in the brain which increased when pain was applied. In this study, people who are going through break-ups were also invited to participated with the aim of finding common activated regions in physical and "social" pain. Finally, the effect of drugs for pain relieve was also studied.OK, so now you can quantify my pain, then what? Well, just imagine that your pain prescription is not working so well, because your pain was under or over-estimated... or maybe the source of your pain is not being correctly identified...There are infinite studies interesting to do, specially ones without any medical interest:- What hurts more: giving birth or being kicked in the balls?- Who is suffering more after the break-up: me or my partner? I already can imagine: "Look in this fMRI study how much you made me suffer!"The full study can be read here:Wager TD, Atlas LY, Lindquist MA, Roy M, Woo CW, & Kross E (2013). An fMRI-based neurologic signature of physical pain. The New England journal of medicine, 368 (15), 1388-97 PMID: 23574118... Read more »
Wager TD, Atlas LY, Lindquist MA, Roy M, Woo CW, & Kross E. (2013) An fMRI-based neurologic signature of physical pain. The New England journal of medicine, 368(15), 1388-97. PMID: 23574118
When you typically think of computer scientists working on questions in biology, you probably picture a bioinformatician. Although bionformatics makes heavy use of algorithms and machine learning, and its practitioners are often mildly familiar with computational complexity (enough to know that almost everything they study is NP-complete), it doesn’t really apply computational thinking to understand […]... Read more »
Pais, D., & Leonard, N. (2013) Adaptive network dynamics and evolution of leadership in collective migration. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena. DOI: 10.1016/j.physd.2013.04.014
The impulse to develop medical imaging comes mainly from two sources: understanding/diagnosing diseases and understanding our body. However, medical imaging technology is sometimes used to study different objects. This post is dedicated to the imaging of one type of these objects: paintings.... Read more »
This video shows a demonstration flight of a new helicopter. But the helicopter isn’t new; the way it’s controlled is. The entire flight was managed by the thoughts of a man wearing a cap with electrodes. The researchers think that if a helicopter can be piloted by detachable electrodes, then these electrodes could be used to make non-invasive limbs for the disabled.... Read more »
Lafleur K, Cassady K, Doud A, Shades K, Rogin E, & He B. (2013) Quadcopter control in three-dimensional space using a noninvasive motor imagery-based brain-computer interface. Journal of neural engineering, 10(4), 46003. PMID: 23735712
The first time I was started thinking about dental imaging from a different point of view was when I heard in a talk the speaker saying: "These are statistics about medical imaging, without dental imaging.". I wondered "Why are dental imaging statistics not included?"... Read more »
Vandenberghe B, Jacobs R, & Bosmans H. (2010) Modern dental imaging: a review of the current technology and clinical applications in dental practice. European radiology, 20(11), 2637-55. PMID: 20544352
Big data is the buzzword du jour, permuting from machine learning to hadoop powered distributed computing, from giant scientific projects to individual social science studies, and from careful statistics to the witchcraft of web-analytics. As we are overcome by petabytes of data and as more of it becomes public, it is tempting for a would-be […]... Read more »
Chattopadhyay, Ishanu, Wen, Yicheng, & Ray, Asok. (2010) Pattern Classification In Symbolic Streams via Semantic Annihilation of Information. American Control Conference. arXiv: 1008.3667v1
In a new thesis on marine current power at Uppsala University, Emilia Lalander shows that currently available water data are valuable for estimating the movement speed of water and thereby the potential energy resource available in a particular area.... Read more »
Lalander, E., Grabbe, M., & Leijon, M. (2013) On the velocity distribution for hydro-kinetic energy conversion from tidal currents and rivers. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, 5(2), 23115. DOI: 10.1063/1.4795398
It's 2013, and laboratory pigeons are demanding an upgrade. Well, maybe they aren't demanding so much as continuing to do whatever tasks get them their pigeon pellets. Nevertheless, switching from analog to digital testing could mean more rigorous studies, better statistics, and a chance for previously ignored animals to try their paws at cognition research.
One of the classic cognitive tests that psychologists like to give animals involves two or more strings. At the far end of one string, there's a treat. The animal has to figure out that tugging on the near end of this string will gradually bring the reward close enough to eat.
How classic is the string test? In a recent Animal Cognition paper, Edward Wasserman of the University of Iowa and his coauthors list 74 different papers involving this experiment. Animals subjected to string-pulling tasks have includes apes, monkeys, birds, cats, rats, and Asian elephants. The experiments have been limited, though, to animals that can grasp and pull on a string or rope. Another constraint is the time it takes an experimenter to physically set up the strings and refill the food dishes over and over again.
Wasserman and his colleagues used a pigeon focus group to try out a new kind of string test with no string at all. The whole thing took place on a touchscreen, which you can see above. When pigeons pecked at the square on the near end of a "string," the "dish" on the other end moved a little closer. One dish was an empty black box; the other was a photo of pigeon feed. When a pigeon reeled the food dish all the way in, a tasty (non-virtual) pellet dropped out of a dispenser.
The four pigeons in the study quickly got the gist of things, learning to peck the end of the string attached to the food. They started off with simple tasks, in which the strings were short and didn't cross over each other. Then the strings got longer, appeared at various angles, and eventually crossed. These tasks were increasingly challenging to the pigeons. But even for the hardest tasks, the first string they pecked was usually the correct one.
Unlike in a real string test, there was no pulling—no physical weight of food to focus on dragging closer. Still, Wasserman thinks the touchscreen experiment is an accurate substitute for the real thing. In videos like this one, you can see the pigeons bobbing their heads along the strings as they work, seeming to understand the logic of the puzzle. The authors compare the experiment to a game of Angry Birds, which also simulates real physics (albeit with slingshotted cartoon animals).
Also unlike a real string test, the researchers were able to instantly change the length or placement of the strings. They put their pigeons through tens of thousands of trials without much trouble. All of this means better statistical analyses and more reliable results are possible. Using a touchscreen "allows us to conduct experiments with much greater rigor than would otherwise be the case," Wasserman says.
The new method could also let researchers try this kind of testing on any animal that can work a touchscreen, Wasserman says—"even those without dextrous appendages." For example, fish. He also suggests mammals such as dogs, horses, or cows, as well as birds that can't use their claws like hands. One aquarium has already demonstrated that its penguins can play an iPad game. From the aquarium's video, though, it's unclear whether the penguin is truly enjoying the app for cats, or if trying to nab an onscreen mouse is turning it into an Angry Bird.
Wasserman, E., Nagasaka, Y., Castro, L., & Brzykcy, S. (2013). Pigeons learn virtual patterned-string problems in a computerized touch screen environment Animal Cognition DOI: 10.1007/s10071-013-0608-0
Image: Wasserman et al.
... Read more »
Wasserman, E., Nagasaka, Y., Castro, L., & Brzykcy, S. (2013) Pigeons learn virtual patterned-string problems in a computerized touch screen environment. Animal Cognition. DOI: 10.1007/s10071-013-0608-0
It’s a staple of science fiction: people who can control objects with their minds.
At the University of Minnesota, a new technology is turning that fiction into reality.
In the lab of biomedical engineering professor Bin He, several young people have learned to use their thoughts to steer a flying robot around a gym, making it turn, rise, dip, and even sail through a ring.
The technology, pioneered by He, may someday allow people robbed of speech and mobility by neurodegenerative diseases to regain function by controlling artificial limbs, wheelchairs, or other devices. And it’s completely noninvasive: Brain waves (EEG) are picked up by the electrodes of an EEG cap on the scalp, not a chip implanted in the brain.... Read more »
University of Minnesota. (2013) Mind over mechanics. UM News. info:/
Like diamond or graphite, graphene is a structural modification (an allotrope) of carbon, that has many special properties that make it a very useful material with great potential for application in technology. In essence, graphene is an isolated atomic plane of graphite, which is very light (1-square-meter sheet weighing only 0.77 milligrams) and at the same time very strong (graphene has a breaking strength over 100 times greater than a hypothetical steel film of the same thickness). The electrical properties of this novel material are being extensively researched for the wide range of potential graphene applications.... Read more »
Chen, R., Das, S., Jeong, C., Khan, M., Janes, D., & Alam, M. (2013) Co-Percolating Graphene-Wrapped Silver Nanowire Network for High Performance, Highly Stable, Transparent Conducting Electrodes. Advanced Functional Materials. DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201300124
Connolly, M., Chiu, K., Giblin, S., Kataoka, M., Fletcher, J., Chua, C., Griffiths, J., Jones, G., Fal'ko, V., Smith, C.... (2013) Gigahertz quantized charge pumping in graphene quantum dots. Nature Nanotechnology. DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2013.73
Britnell, L., Ribeiro, R., Eckmann, A., Jalil, R., Belle, B., Mishchenko, A., Kim, Y., Gorbachev, R., Georgiou, T., Morozov, S.... (2013) Strong Light-Matter Interactions in Heterostructures of Atomically Thin Films. Science. DOI: 10.1126/science.1235547
A new study in Consciousness and Cognition demonstrates technology may be able to offer part of the solution: donning the skin of a dark-skinned avatar significantly decreased an individual’s racial biases.... Read more »
Peck, T., Seinfeld, S., Aglioti, S., & Slater, M. (2013) Putting yourself in the skin of a black avatar reduces implicit racial bias. Consciousness and Cognition, 22(3), 779-787. DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2013.04.016
I have posted recently about the most cited (important?) papers in Medical Imaging in the last ten/five/two years here. Today I look for the most cited papers in the field of MRI. Interesting to note that these 3 papers were published in Neuroimage.Most cited paper in Radiology, Nuclear Science and Medical Imaging Field about MRI:- of the last 10 years with 1346 citations:Ashburner, J., & Friston, K. (2005). Unified segmentation NeuroImage, 26 (3), 839-851 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.02.018 This paper is the basis for the SPM framework, one of the most important in the field of MRI. Thus, it is understandable that this paper has a lot of citations, because most researchers who use this framework (and there are a lot, myself included) use this paper in their citations.- of the last 5 years with 250 citations:Klein, A., Andersson, J., Ardekani, B., Ashburner, J., Avants, B., Chiang, M., Christensen, G., Collins, D., Gee, J., Hellier, P., Song, J., Jenkinson, M., Lepage, C., Rueckert, D., Thompson, P., Vercauteren, T., Woods, R., Mann, J., & Parsey, R. (2009). Evaluation of 14 nonlinear deformation algorithms applied to human brain MRI registration NeuroImage, 46 (3), 786-802 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.12.037I have to say that I am quite surprised by finding this paper on top. Brain MRI registration is nowadays considered almost a solved problem and I don't think there are many people looking into this anymore. However, it is always nice to put in your own paper: "I used this registration, because this paper says it is the best".- of the last 2 years with 106 citations:Smith, S., Miller, K., Salimi-Khorshidi, G., Webster, M., Beckmann, C., Nichols, T., Ramsey, J., & Woolrich, M. (2011). Network modelling methods for FMRI NeuroImage, 54 (2), 875-891 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.08.063 I have talked about brain networks some times in this blog and this paper shows me that this topic has been hot in the last two years. This papers discusses different methods to obtain networks with fMRI data: "Many different methods are being used in the literature, but almost none has been carefully validated or compared for use on FMRI timeseries data."... Read more »
Klein, A., Andersson, J., Ardekani, B., Ashburner, J., Avants, B., Chiang, M., Christensen, G., Collins, D., Gee, J., Hellier, P.... (2009) Evaluation of 14 nonlinear deformation algorithms applied to human brain MRI registration. NeuroImage, 46(3), 786-802. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.12.037
Ending a long-time controversy concerning the reason behind indium gallium nitride semiconductor efficiency, MIT and Brookhaven Lab scientists have concluded that it definitely has nothing to do with indium-rich clusters.... Read more »
Baloch, K., Johnston-Peck, A., Kisslinger, K., Stach, E., & Gradečak, S. (2013) Revisiting the “In-clustering” question in InGaN through the use of aberration-corrected electron microscopy below the knock-on threshold. Applied Physics Letters, 102(19), 191910. DOI: 10.1063/1.4807122
New micro-fabricated grating chips developed through ESA-led research enable the laser-based cooling and capture of atoms on a more compact basis than ever before, potentially delivering laboratory-standard performance for precision environmental sensing and timekeeping from devices portable enough to be flown into space.... Read more »
ESA Space Engineering. (2013) Atom-trapping laser gratings : A technological quantum leap for space. ESA. info:/
One of the three goals of natural algorithms is to implement computers in non-electronic media. In cases like quantum computing, the goal is to achieve a qualitatively different form of computing, but other times (as with most biological computing) the goal is just to recreate normal computation (or a subset of it) at a different […]... Read more »
Cardelli L, & Csikász-Nagy A. (2012) The cell cycle switch computes approximate majority. Scientific Reports, 656. PMID: 22977731
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