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All posts; Tags Include "Behavioral Neuroscience"

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  • June 24, 2014
  • 12:22 PM

E-cigarettes and Smoking Cessation

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Electronic or e-cigarettes are a tobacco cigarette alternative that is growing in popularity.Proponents of e-cigarettes note the product contains no carbon monoxide, tar or other tobacco residue. The inhaled vapor in e-cigarettes is primarily nicotine.Additionally, some proponents of e-cigarettes declare the product is associated with reduction or cessation of tobacco-based cigarette use.Unfortunately, this is an area where public health trends come before scientific research data is collected. ........ Read more »

Bullen, C., Howe, C., Laugesen, M., McRobbie, H., Parag, V., Williman, J., & Walker, N. (2013) Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation: a randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 382(9905), 1629-1637. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61842-5  

  • June 24, 2014
  • 09:04 AM

No need to only send your best work to Science Magazine

by Björn Brembs in

The data clearly show that publications in Cell, Nature or Science (CNS for short), on average, cannot be distinguished from other publications, be it by methodology, reproducibility or other measures of quality. Even their citation advantage, while statistically significant, is […] ↓ Read the rest of this entry...... Read more »

  • June 23, 2014
  • 10:52 AM

Varenicline for Smoking Cessation

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Varenicline is a drug designed to assist smokers in cessation. It is marketed in the U.S. as Chantix.Varenicline is one of the first drugs to target the nicotine receptor. It is classified as a partial agonist, meaning it stimulates the nicotine receptor but to a weaker effect than nicotine itself.The mechanism of action of varenicline differs from that of another smoking cessation drug bupropion marked under trade name Zyban in the U.S.One concern with varenicline is the risk for psychiatric ad........ Read more »

  • June 20, 2014
  • 12:07 PM

Maternal Smoking and Child Conduct Disorder Risk

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Conduct disorder is a serious behavioral disorder of childhood characterized by aggression, destruction of property, lying, theft and violation of rules.A significant number of children with conduct disorder go on to adult antisocial personality disorder.Conduct disorder is known to have genetic as well as environmental risk factors.Darya Gaysina from the United Kingdom and colleagues recently published a review of maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring conduct problems.This review exam........ Read more »

  • June 19, 2014
  • 03:31 PM

Addiction, anhedonia, and reward processing in smokers

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

In those who are addicted to drugs (or any other substance or behavior), the desire to re-experience the intoxicating effects they initially felt when they used the drug can be overwhelming. It can lead to compulsive drug-seeking, obsessive thinking, and irrational behavior. In addition to these new thought patterns and behaviors, however, addiction is also is associated with a diminished ability to experience pleasure from non-drug rewards. This reduced pleasure is termed........ Read more »

  • June 19, 2014
  • 11:20 AM

Smoking and Abnormal Brain Pleasure Response

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Smoking cessation in those with nicotine dependence is one of the most difficult challenges for patients and their clinicians.Research targeting the neurobiology of smoking cessation provides hope for designing more effective treatments for nicotine dependence.Takeshi Isomura along with colleagues in the U.S. and Japan recently summarized recent findings in the brain pleasure response in nicotine dependence.The brain ventral striatum region is known to be key in nearly all sensations of pleasure........ Read more »

Peters J, Bromberg U, Schneider S, Brassen S, Menz M, Banaschewski T, Conrod PJ, Flor H, Gallinat J, Garavan H.... (2011) Lower ventral striatal activation during reward anticipation in adolescent smokers. The American journal of psychiatry, 168(5), 540-9. PMID: 21362742  

  • June 9, 2014
  • 01:00 PM

New Genetic Clues to Autism

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

There is a long, controversial life to autism. Autism comes from the greek autos, meaning self. The term describes conditions which a person is removed from interaction — hence, an isolated self. […]... Read more »

Hakon Hakonarson. (2014) The impact of the metabotropic glutamate receptor and other gene family interaction networks on autism,. Nature. info:/

  • June 2, 2014
  • 11:52 AM

Brain Resting Connectivity Deficits in Autism

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Resting connectivity is a measure of brain circuitry obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).This technique is relatively new but there is emerging evidence of the potential value in research and clinical assessment.Research in brain connectivity includes looking for distinct patterns in brain disorders compared to health controls.One such type of study in autism has been published by a group of Japanese researchers.Takashi Itahashi and colleagues recruited 46 adult subjects wit........ Read more »

Itahashi T, Yamada T, Watanabe H, Nakamura M, Jimbo D, Shioda S, Toriizuka K, Kato N, & Hashimoto R. (2014) Altered network topologies and hub organization in adults with autism: a resting-state FMRI study. PloS one, 9(4). PMID: 24714805  

  • May 30, 2014
  • 02:00 PM

Mind Control: Influencing Choice

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

Ever change your mind? Well now scientists can do it for you, at least that is the latest by researchers from Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and the University of Leuven in […]... Read more »

  • May 29, 2014
  • 09:51 PM

The neurobiological origins of pedophilia

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

Although many within the scientific community believe that pedophilia has its origins in the brain, the neurobiological underpinnings of the disorder are still very unclear. It is hoped, however, that technologies that allow for the observation of brain activity in real-time, like positron-emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), will provide us with more information about potential abnormalities in the brains of pedophiles (for more abou........ Read more »

Ponseti, J., Granert, O., van Eimeren, T., Jansen, O., Wolff, S., Beier, K., Deuschl, G., Bosinski, H., & Siebner, H. (2014) Human face processing is tuned to sexual age preferences. Biology Letters, 10(5), 20140200-20140200. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2014.0200  

  • May 27, 2014
  • 08:16 PM

Sex alters DNA in the brain

by TheCellularScale in The Cellular Scale

It's already known that sex causes the neurotransmitters dopamine and oxytocin to be released in the brain. But a recent study has shown that sex can epigenetically modify the DNA in the brain in a way that facilitates pair bonding. The Cellular Scale has an article over at The Toast today telling you all about it.Check it out: The Virgin BrainWang H, Duclot F, Liu Y, Wang Z, & Kabbaj M (2013). Histone deacetylase inhibitors facilitate partner preference formation in female prairie voles. Na........ Read more »

  • May 19, 2014
  • 10:07 PM

The neuroscience of obsessive-compulsive disorder

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

As awareness of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has grown over the years, so has the degree to which the disorder is misunderstood. For example, one common misperception is that individuals who suffer from OCD all engage in repetitious rituals like hand-washing, repeatedly checking the locks, or flicking the light switch on and off a specific number of times. While some people with OCD do experience ritualistic compulsions, this is not a necessary component of an OCD d........ Read more »

Radua, J., Grau, M., van den Heuvel, O., Thiebaut de Schotten, M., Stein, D., Canales-Rodríguez, E., Catani, M., & Mataix-Cols, D. (2014) Multimodal Voxel-Based Meta-Analysis of White Matter Abnormalities in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology, 39(7), 1547-1557. DOI: 10.1038/npp.2014.5  

  • May 16, 2014
  • 02:25 PM

MORE Science Fact and Fiction Behind Fat Loss

by Dr. Jekyll in Lunatic Laboratories

I was shocked by the huge response to my first post on the science behind weight loss, so much so that I wanted to do a second post in the series […]... Read more »

Hana Kahleova, Lenka Belinova, Hana Malinska, Olena Oliyarnyk,, Jaroslava Trnovska, Vojtech Skop, Ludmila Kazdova, Monika Dezortova,, & Milan Hajek, Andrea Tura, Martin Hill, Terezie Pelikanova. (2014) Eating two larger meals a day (breakfast and lunch) is more effective than six smaller meals in a reduced-energy regimen for patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomised crossover study. Diabetologia. info:/10.1007/s00125-014-3253-5

Lombardo, M., Bellia, A., Padua, E., Annino, G., Guglielmi, V., D’Adamo, M., Iellamo, F., & Sbraccia, P. (2014) Morning Meal More Efficient for Fat Loss in a 3-Month Lifestyle Intervention. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 1-8. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2013.863169  

Andersson DP, Eriksson Hogling D, Thorell A, Toft E, Qvisth V, Näslund E, Thörne A, Wirén M, Löfgren P, Hoffstedt J.... (2014) Changes in Subcutaneous Fat Cell Volume and Insulin Sensitivity After Weight Loss. Diabetes care. PMID: 24760260  

Fletcher, G., Dawes, J., & Spano, M. (2014) The Potential Dangers of Using Rapid Weight Loss Techniques. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 36(2), 45-48. DOI: 10.1519/SSC.0000000000000043  

  • May 11, 2014
  • 05:52 AM

Changing the landscape of psychiatric research

by Dorothy Bishop in bishopblog

NIMH has expressed dissatisfaction with psychiatric categories as embodied in DSM5 and is focused on a new approach that aims to understand mental illnesses in terms of genes and neural circuits. I have reservations about whether this approach will live up to expectations.... Read more »

  • May 9, 2014
  • 08:59 AM

Prying minds with mind-blowing optogenetics

by EE Giorgi in CHIMERAS

Did you know there was such a thing as optogenetics? The idea alone completely blows my mind:"Optogenetics uses light to control neurons which have been genetically sensitised to light. It is a neuromodulation technique employed in neuroscience that uses a combination of techniques from optics and genetics to control and monitor the activities of individual neurons in living tissue to precisely measure the effects of those manipulations in real-time. The key reagents used in optogenetics are lig........ Read more »

  • May 7, 2014
  • 07:59 PM

Sex smells: pheromones in humans

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

By the middle of the 20th century, biologists had become aware of a unique type of communication occurring among insects. The communication involved the secretion of substances that were similar to hormones in some ways, but also very different. While hormones are secreted into the bloodstream to elicit some reaction in the body, these substances exit the body and are used to elicit a reaction in a conspecific (another organism of the same species). They were given the nam........ Read more »

  • May 7, 2014
  • 08:05 AM

Everybody Wants To Be Cool

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Capsaicin activates TRPV1 ion channels. Why do we care? Because that’s makes our mouth burn when we eat spicy food. But TRPV1 also senses noxious heat. On the other end of the scale, there are also ion channels for sensing cool and cold temperatures. But the TRPM8 cool receptor is also activated by menthol. This is much of the reason for menthol being added to cigarettes.

New research shows that menthol in cigarettes adds to the cytotoxicity of tobacco smoke, while menthol alone causes ........ Read more »

Noriyasu A, Konishi T, Mochizuki S, Sakurai K, Tanaike Y, Matsuyama K, Uezu K, & Kawano T. (2013) Menthol-enhanced cytotoxicity of cigarette smoke demonstrated in two bioassay models. Tobacco induced diseases, 11(1), 18. PMID: 24001273  

Brody AL, Mukhin AG, La Charite J, Ta K, Farahi J, Sugar CA, Mamoun MS, Vellios E, Archie M, Kozman M.... (2013) Up-regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in menthol cigarette smokers. The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology / official scientific journal of the Collegium Internationale Neuropsychopharmacologicum (CINP), 16(5), 957-66. PMID: 23171716  

Ashoor A, Nordman JC, Veltri D, Yang KH, Al Kury L, Shuba Y, Mahgoub M, Howarth FC, Sadek B, Shehu A.... (2013) Menthol binding and inhibition of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. PloS one, 8(7). PMID: 23935840  

  • May 4, 2014
  • 11:31 PM

Not tonight dear, I had zymosan A injected into my hind paw

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

We now have definitive proof that the propensity of womankind to postpone sex due to a headache is of evolutionary origin! This annoying habit has been traced back directly to a strain of ovariectomized CD-1® IGS mice supplied by Charles River.In a naturalistic design that precisely mimics the mating habits of humans, sexual receptivity was induced in the female mice with subcutaneous injections of estradiol. Then the female mice and their preferred male partners were injected in various body ........ Read more »

Ambler N, Williams AC, Hill P, Gunary R, & Cratchley G. (2001) Sexual difficulties of chronic pain patients. Clinical Journal of Pain, 17(2), 138-45. PMID: 11444715  

Farmer, M., Leja, A., Foxen-Craft, E., Chan, L., MacIntyre, L., Niaki, T., Chen, M., Mapplebeck, J., Tabry, V., Topham, L.... (2014) Pain Reduces Sexual Motivation in Female But Not Male Mice. Journal of Neuroscience, 34(17), 5747-5753. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5337-13.2014  

  • May 1, 2014
  • 01:22 PM

Understanding Traumatic Brain Injury

by Vivek Misra in Uberbrain Research Frontier

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is brain injury resulting from the application of an external physical force to the brain, including acceleration/deceleration and/or blast-related forces , that produce immediately apparent physiological disruption of brain function and/or structure, usually evidenced by an alteration of mental state and/or sensorimotor impairments, that result in at least transient functional disability. This definition of TBI excludes brain injuries due to perinatal trauma, hypoxi........ Read more »

Roozenbeek B, Maas AI, & Menon DK. (2013) Changing patterns in the epidemiology of traumatic brain injury. Nature reviews. Neurology, 9(4), 231-6. PMID: 23443846  

Silver JM, McAllister TW, & Arciniegas DB. (2009) Depression and cognitive complaints following mild traumatic brain injury. The American journal of psychiatry, 166(6), 653-61. PMID: 19487401  

Coronado VG, Xu L, Basavaraju SV, McGuire LC, Wald MM, Faul MD, Guzman BR, Hemphill JD, & Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011) Surveillance for traumatic brain injury-related deaths--United States, 1997-2007. Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Surveillance summaries (Washington, D.C. : 2002), 60(5), 1-32. PMID: 21544045  

  • April 29, 2014
  • 04:52 PM

Characterizing Sleep and Wake in the Cat

by Allison in Dormivigilia

The cat is not a new model of sleep. In fact, it is one of the oldest. This study better characterized the electrophysiological output that corresponds with sleep and wake using local field potential recordings and how the sleep states temporally corresponded with neuronal activity in the somatosensory cortex. This is a model of memory consolidation. ... Read more »

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