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All posts; Tags Include "Behavioral Neuroscience"

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  • January 20, 2014
  • 11:07 AM

Gender Influences Sleep Amount and Subsequent Physiology

by Allison in Dormivigilia

Very good friends of mine examined the relationship between actual bed time and underlying physiology in a huge cohort of male versus female college students. Perhaps we should be more sensitive to others' complaints of sleep. ... Read more »

Van Reen E, Sharkey KM, Roane BM, Barker D, Seifer R, Raffray T, Bond TL, & Carskadon MA. (2013) Sex of College Students Moderates Associations among Bedtime, Time in Bed, and Circadian Phase Angle. Journal of biological rhythms, 28(6), 425-31. PMID: 24336420  

  • January 20, 2014
  • 07:51 AM

Alternate Day Fasting for Weight Loss and Cardioprotection

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

I have previously commented on the alternate day fasting diet for weight loss. Studies have generally supported this strategy.  Alternate day fasting restricts caloric intake to an evening meal of 25% of caloric needs every other day.On non-fasting days, dieters are encouraged to eat a typical diet without restriction.A recent randomized controlled trial of alternate day fasting has been published in Nutrition Journal.Krista Varady and colleagues from the University of Illinois designe........ Read more »

  • January 19, 2014
  • 09:11 PM

Popular science writing and accuracy

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

This week, an article appeared in the L.A. Times online, and was recycled in the Chicago Tribune and a number of other media sources. It focused on a study that was just published in the Journal of Neuroscience. In the study, Iniguez et al. gave fluoxetine (aka Prozac) to male adolescent mice for 15 days. Three weeks after ending the fluoxetine treatment, the researchers tested the mice on two measures that are purported to assess depression in rodents and one that is a suggested measure of anxi........ Read more »

Iñiguez SD, Alcantara LF, Warren BL, Riggs LM, Parise EM, Vialou V, Wright KN, Dayrit G, Nieto SJ, Wilkinson MB, Lobo MK, Neve RL, Nestler EJ, Bolaños-Guzmán CA. (2014) Fluoxetine Exposure during Adolescence Alters Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Adulthood. Journal of Neuroscience. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5725-12.2014  

  • January 15, 2014
  • 08:24 PM

Two cups of coffee after learning may cure your forgetful streak

by Shelly Fan in Neurorexia

Like most junkies, I struggle to come up with excuses to justify my addiction. Lucky for me, increasing evidence is supporting my semi-hourly coffee habit: caffeine, the world’s favourite drug, not only keeps you awake and alert, but may also boost your memory. Perhaps in an effort to excuse their own coffee addiction, many research […]... Read more »

Borota D, Murray E, Keceli G, Chang A, Watabe JM, Ly M, Toscano JP, & Yassa MA. (2014) Post-study caffeine administration enhances memory consolidation in humans. Nature neuroscience. PMID: 24413697  

  • January 15, 2014
  • 05:18 PM

Why you can’t stop – Eating & Addiction

by sedeer in Inspiring Science

Everyone knows sugar-rich, fatty foods are unhealthy, but we keep eating them. The diet industry is booming, but so are …Continue reading »... Read more »

  • January 15, 2014
  • 08:20 AM

Pump Up Your Brain

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Exercise increases brainpower, but do you know how? Many recent studies document the results of exercise on executive function, memory, processing speed, and attention, but some are also investigating just how these changes in cognitive function are brought about.

In particular a 2013 study shows that preadolescents who begin exercise score better on a cognitive assessment not unlike an IQ test. They also perform better on a math test, even though no additional math instruction was given. On ........ Read more »

  • January 14, 2014
  • 09:20 AM

Weight Loss Drug Combo Improves Sleep Apnea

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Obesity is a risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea. Use of a positive airway pressure (PAP) device is the standard treatment for sleep apnea.However, PAP commonly is only moderately effective in reducing sleep disruption and day time fatigue. A significant number of individuals fail to use their PAP devices due to inconvenience or mask problems.Weight loss alone can improve sleep in those developing sleep apnea. Winslow and colleagues at the Kentucky Research conducted a randomi........ Read more »

  • January 13, 2014
  • 09:48 AM

Low Carb-Mediterranean Diet Combo Sheds Fat in Trial

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

In keeping with this month's theme of obesity, the brain and weight loss I want to look at some clinical trial research.Brain Posts does not endorse any type of diet or weight loss pills or substances. Personal dietary and obesity medication use choices need to be made with a qualified health professional.However, I do post some dietary research that I find interesting. I have previously posted summaries of research related to the Mediterranean diet and beneficial cognitive and cardiovascular ef........ Read more »

  • January 9, 2014
  • 10:58 AM

How the Body Blocks Effect of Exercise After Weight-Loss

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Weight loss with aerobic physical activity does not correspond to a one-to-one relationship.For example if you started to burn 500 calories per day on a seven day per week basis, you might expect to lose one pound per week (3500 calories = one pound).But this is not the case. In a previous post, weight loss does occur with starting a physical exercise program but may be only 10-20% efficient over time.One way the body blocks exercise-induced weight loss is via adjustment in what is known as the ........ Read more »

  • January 8, 2014
  • 10:48 AM

Vigorous Exercise and Weight Loss

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Exercise alone without dieting appears to have a limited effect on weight loss.However, even small amounts of weight loss can lead to improved health and reduction of risk for diabetes and other obesity-related disorders.A recent study examined the effect of a supervised aerobic exercise activity on weight loss.Joseph Donnelly along with colleagues from the University of Kansas recently published their results on weight with exercise.This trial comes from the study known as the Midwest Exercise ........ Read more »

Donnelly JE, Honas JJ, Smith BK, Mayo MS, Gibson CA, Sullivan DK, Lee J, Herrmann SD, Lambourne K, & Washburn RA. (2013) Aerobic exercise alone results in clinically significant weight loss for men and women: midwest exercise trial 2. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), 21(3). PMID: 23592678  

  • January 7, 2014
  • 09:37 AM

Weight Loss Surgery Improves Memory and Cognition

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

I have reviewed some research evidence documenting the adverse effect of obesity on cognition.Dementia rates do appear increased in obese populations but the mechanism and issue of causality is unclear.If there is a direct effect of obesity on brain function, one might expect weight loss to improve cognition.There have been a series of papers examining changes in cognition following bariatric weight loss surgery using the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study.At baseline, about one ........ Read more »

Gunstad J, Strain G, Devlin MJ, Wing R, Cohen RA, Paul RH, Crosby RD, & Mitchell JE. (2011) Improved memory function 12 weeks after bariatric surgery. Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery, 7(4), 465-72. PMID: 21145295  

Alosco ML, Galioto R, Spitznagel MB, Strain G, Devlin M, Cohen R, Crosby RD, Mitchell JE, & Gunstad J. (2013) Cognitive function after bariatric surgery: evidence for improvement 3 years after surgery. American journal of surgery. PMID: 24119892  

  • January 2, 2014
  • 11:08 AM

Getting Fat, Getting Old and Cognition

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

I want to start 2014 out with a focus on diet, obesity and cognitive health. I will be reviewing some recent randomized controlled trials for weight loss.However, before looking a weight loss, I wanted to frame the discussion with an overview of what is known about the general population trend for increased obesity in the context of longer mean length of life.Roger Fielding and colleagues recently published an excellent review of this issue in a manuscript entitled "The Paradox of Overnutrition ........ Read more »

Fielding RA, Gunstad J, Gustafson DR, Heymsfield SB, Kral JG, Launer LJ, Penninger J, Phillips DI, & Scarmeas N. (2013) The paradox of overnutrition in aging and cognition. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 31-43. PMID: 23682739  

  • December 24, 2013
  • 08:05 PM

The Finest Quality Snake Oil: Mandometer(r) Treatment for Eating Disorders – Part I

by Tetyana in Science of Eating Disorders

PROTIP: When selling your snake oil treatment, try NOT to make wildly outrageous efficacy claims. But if you can’t resist that temptation, try to limit your hard-to-believe, eye-roll-inducing claims to your treatment — there’s no need to go further.
In this post, I’m going to give a brief history of the Mandometer® treatment and its apparent rationale. In the next one or two posts, I will do an analysis of the most recently study by the group that claims to show r........ Read more »

Bergh, C., Eklund, S., Eriksson, M., Lindberg, G., & Sodersten, P. (1996) A new treatment of anorexia nervosa. . The Lancet, 611-612. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)64824-6  

Bergh C, Callmar M, Danemar S, Hölcke M, Isberg S, Leon M, Lindgren J, Lundqvist A, Niinimaa M, Olofsson B.... (2013) Effective treatment of eating disorders: Results at multiple sites. Behavioral neuroscience, 127(6), 878-89. PMID: 24341712  

  • December 24, 2013
  • 04:25 PM

How not to Write an Original Science Paper

by Allison in Dormivigilia

A recent study in the Journal of Clinical Investigation is a good representative example of bad data organization and presentation. I usually refrain from criticizing studies because I'd like reviewers to give me the same benefit of the doubt, but this is beyond acceptable for such a high-impact journal. ... Read more »

Musiek ES, Lim MM, Yang G, Bauer AQ, Qi L, Lee Y, Roh JH, Ortiz-Gonzalez X, Dearborn JT, Culver JP.... (2013) Circadian clock proteins regulate neuronal redox homeostasis and neurodegeneration. The Journal of clinical investigation, 123(12), 5389-400. PMID: 24270424  

  • December 18, 2013
  • 10:07 AM

A Screening Tool For Autism Spectrum in Adults

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Progress in the early diagnosis of autism and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is being made for young children.However, there has been less attention to the diagnosis of autism in adults.Many adults with autism and ASD passed through childhood before much was known about these disorders.This means many adults with ASD may still be not be diagnosed and are not being referred for potentially beneficial services.A recent study from the Karolinska Institute in Sweden supports the validity of a new s........ Read more »

  • December 16, 2013
  • 10:14 AM

Genetic Factors Contribute to Being Skinny

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

An increasing body of research supports a genetic contribution to obesity.However, relatively few genetic studies of the opposite or lean phenotype have been done.The lean phenotype is important to study because being very underweight is linked to mortality risk and several clinical disorders including anorexia nervosa.Typically, I review neuroscience research manuscripts from other scientists in Brain Posts.Today I want to summarize some of my own research published recently in the journal PLOS........ Read more »

Yates WR, Johnson C, McKee P, Cannon-Albright LA. (2013) Genetic Analysis of Low BMI Phenotype in the Utah Population Database. PLOS One. info:/10.1371/journal.pone.0080287

  • December 12, 2013
  • 05:00 PM

The Link Between Using Pro-Social Media and Empathy

by Jalees Rehman in The Next Regeneration

Does watching TV and playing video games affect our empathy and willingness to engage in pro-social behavior? A team of international psychology researchers studied over 2,000 adolescents (mean age 21 years, 60% female and 40% male) in seven countries (Australia, China, Croatia, Germany, Japan, Romania and the United States) to determine whether there is a link between the media they consume and their levels of empathy and pro-social behavior. ... Read more »

Sara Prot, Douglas A. Gentile, Craig A. Anderson, Kanae Suzuki, Edward Swing, Kam Ming Lim, Yukiko Horiuchi, Margareta Jelic, Barbara Krahé, Wei Liuqing.... (2013) Long-Term Relations Among Prosocial-Media Use, Empathy, and Prosocial Behavior. Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1177/0956797613503854  

  • December 6, 2013
  • 01:00 PM

Rethinking the Nucleus Accumbens: Regulating Sleep

by Allison in Dormivigilia

The accumbens is historically classified as a reward center. But recent research in animal models shows that it also regulates sleep-This is no surprise, right? Don't you have to hypothetically be awake in order to partake in something pleasurable?... Read more »

  • December 5, 2013
  • 11:39 AM

Low Testosterone and Diabetes Risk

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Several years ago I published a research study that showing testosterone augmentation improved metabolic syndrome and insulin sensitivity in men with type 2 diabetes.Testosterone appears to influence weight including abdominal fat deposition. The mechanism for this relationship is unclear. Additionally, the relationship between testosterone and diabetes risk is unclear.A recent study from Taiwan has provided some additional insight into the role of low testosterone and diabetes risk.Ho and colle........ Read more »

  • December 3, 2013
  • 11:22 AM

Testosterone Replacement Linked to Weight Loss

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

The hormone testosterone has significant effects on brain function and structure.In the next few posts, I will review several recent research studies related to testosterone.Testosterone deficiency or hypogonadism is more common in obese compared to non-obese.The mechanism for this relationship is unclear. However, a recent study has outlined the effect of testosterone replacement on body weight.AA Yassin and G Doros examined the longitudinal changes in weight, waist circumference and body mass ........ Read more »

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