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All posts; Tags Include "Behavioral Neuroscience"

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  • January 20, 2016
  • 06:55 AM
  • 971 views

Pump Up Your Brain

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Exercising makes you smarter! Preadolescents who begin exercising score better on a cognitive assessment not unlike an IQ test. They also perform better on a math test, even though no additional math instruction was given. But to maximize the increase in neural plasticity, you have to exercise several times a week for months. The weirdest part – different types of exercise alter different neurotrophins, so to be your smartest, you need to do aerobic training and resistance training. ... Read more »

  • December 2, 2015
  • 11:37 AM
  • 439 views

Treatment Guidelines for Problem Gambling

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Basal ganglia may be involving in gambling disorderProblem gambling effects a number of individuals who engage in gambling behavior.Gambling behavior that meets criteria as a Gambling Disorder according to the criteria of DSM-5 includes four or more of the following over a consecutive 12 month period of time:Increased quantity of money gambled to achieve excitementRestlessness/irritability when attempting to cut down gambling behaviorRepeated unsuccessful attempts to cut down or stop gamblingPre........ Read more »

Lee KM, Chan HN, Cheah B, Gentica GF, Guo S, Lim HK, Lim YC, Noorul F, Tan HS, Teo P.... (2011) Ministry of Health clinical practice guidelines: management of gambling disorders. Singapore medical journal, 52(6), 456. PMID: 21732000  

  • November 23, 2015
  • 12:06 PM
  • 825 views

Gambling and Brain Frontal-Striatum Connections

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

For the remainder of 2015, Brain Posts will focus on pathological gambling and also highlight the top-viewed posts for the year.Functional connectivity is a relatively recent brain imaging technique that provides a new look at brain circuitry at rest and with tasks.Resting state connectivity using fMRI provides a snapshot of brain connections in each individual. There is increasing study of resting connectivity in individuals with disorders in neuroscience medicine compared to control population........ Read more »

  • November 18, 2015
  • 01:00 PM
  • 886 views

Predictors of Poor Outcome After Traumatic Brain Injury

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

The outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often unpredictable and variable.Two individuals with similar types of TBI can have quite different outcomes ranging from total disability to functional employment.Torun Finnanger and colleagues from Norway and Australia recently reported on a study that examined a number of predictor variables on self-reported outcome following TBI.In this study, 67 adolescents and adults with moderate to severe TBI completed baseline assessments and were fo........ Read more »

  • November 16, 2015
  • 11:40 AM
  • 876 views

Smell Test in Screening for Parkinson's Disease Risk

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Molecular model of polypeptide parkinIdentification of early or prodromal stages of the diseases of neuroscience medicine is an important clinical and research goal.Identification of prodromal illness allows for enhanced surveillance and initiation of secondary prevention interventions.Impairment of smell or olfactory sensation is a key early clue for Parkinson's disease (PD).Danna Jennings and colleagues recently published an important study of the role of smell impairment in prodromal PD.This ........ Read more »

Jennings D, Siderowf A, Stern M, Seibyl J, Eberly S, Oakes D, Marek K, & PARS Investigators. (2014) Imaging prodromal Parkinson disease: the Parkinson Associated Risk Syndrome Study. Neurology, 83(19), 1739-46. PMID: 25298306  

  • November 12, 2015
  • 11:51 AM
  • 702 views

Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Sunset in Blanchard, OK courtesy of Dr. Tim YatesThere is a significant need for improvement in the tools available for screening for cognitive impairment in a variety of disorders in neuroscience medicine.The Mini-Mental State Examination Score (MMSE) is a widely used 30-item scale for screening dementia and other neurological conditions.However, the MMSE has some significant weaknesses for use in the clinical setting.Jin Qiao and colleagues from China recently published a study testing th........ Read more »

  • November 10, 2015
  • 11:35 AM
  • 696 views

Brain Inflammation in Dementia with Lewy Bodies

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

The role of inflammation in the brain is receiving increased attention in dementia and other disorders in neuroscience medicine.Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the third leading cause of dementia. This disorder has received increased attention with the finding of the condition in the autopsy of comedian and actor Robin Williams.Patrick Ejlerskov and colleagues from Denmark, Sweden, Germany and the United Kingdom recently published an informative study in the journal Cell on this topic.Cytokin........ Read more »

Ejlerskov P, Hultberg JG, Wang J, Carlsson R, Ambjørn M, Kuss M, Liu Y, Porcu G, Kolkova K, Friis Rundsten C.... (2015) Lack of Neuronal IFN-β-IFNAR Causes Lewy Body- and Parkinson's Disease-like Dementia. Cell, 163(2), 324-39. PMID: 26451483  

  • October 30, 2015
  • 11:06 AM
  • 993 views

Wii Fit Games for Children with Coordination Problems

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Among the types of development problems of childhood is developmental coordination disorder or DCD.In DCD, children show delay and subnormal performance in coordinated motor skills.This may be noted as a general tendency of clumsiness with difficulties in activities such as catching a ball, using scissors, handwriting or riding a bike.Computer games such as the Nintendo Wii platform provide a method to improve a variety of motor and coordination skills in a fun environment.A South African team r........ Read more »

  • October 21, 2015
  • 06:05 PM
  • 127 views

The ‘Glass Brain’ shows neuronal firing in real-time!

by Vaibhav Jain in NEUROFANATIC

Stunning 3D ‘glass brain’ shows neurons firing off in real-time. The structure of the brain is mapped using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The user then wears cap covered with electrodes that measure differences in electric potential to record brain activity. This activity is revealed on-screen. The different colors represent the different frequencies of electrical energy in the brain, as […]... Read more »

Mullen T, Kothe C, Chi YM, Ojeda A, Kerth T, Makeig S, Cauwenberghs G, & Jung TP. (2013) Real-time modeling and 3D visualization of source dynamics and connectivity using wearable EEG. 35th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Biology and Medicine Society., 2184-7. PMID: 24110155  

  • October 14, 2015
  • 09:53 AM
  • 1,534 views

Feel Our Pain: Empathy and Moral Behavior

by Jalees Rehman in The Next Regeneration

"It's empathy that makes us help other people. It's empathy that makes us moral." The economist Paul Zak casually makes this comment in his widely watched TED talk about the hormone oxytocin, which he dubs the "moral molecule". Zak quotes a number of behavioral studies to support his claim that oxytocin increases empathy and trust, which in turn increases moral behavior. If all humans regularly inhaled a few puffs of oxytocin through a nasal spray, we could become m........ Read more »

De Dreu, C., Greer, L., Van Kleef, G., Shalvi, S., & Handgraaf, M. (2011) Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(4), 1262-1266. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1015316108  

Shalvi S, & De Dreu CK. (2014) Oxytocin promotes group-serving dishonesty. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(15), 5503-7. PMID: 24706799  

Xu X, Zuo X, Wang X, & Han S. (2009) Do you feel my pain? Racial group membership modulates empathic neural responses. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 29(26), 8525-9. PMID: 19571143  

  • October 8, 2015
  • 12:30 PM
  • 775 views

Neury Thursday: Modeling disrupted sleep in Angelman Syndrome

by Allison in Dormivigilia

This study came out of our group here at Morehouse School of Medicine. It concerns a mouse model of disrupted sleep in Angelman Syndrome. Basically, was it the circadian or homeostatic system that is responsible, or both? It was the homeostatic. ... Read more »

Ehlen, J., Jones, K., Pinckney, L., Gray, C., Burette, S., Weinberg, R., Evans, J., Brager, A., Zylka, M., Paul, K.... (2015) Maternal Ube3a Loss Disrupts Sleep Homeostasis But Leaves Circadian Rhythmicity Largely Intact. Journal of Neuroscience, 35(40), 13587-13598. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2194-15.2015  

  • October 8, 2015
  • 11:36 AM
  • 792 views

Brain Reward and Anabolic Steroids

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Pine Cone and Peacocks from Vatican MuseumTestosterone displays effects on brain function in both males and females.Emanuela Mhillaj and colleagues recently published a nice summary of what is currently known about the effects of anabolic-androgen steroids (AAS) on the brain.Their review highlighted the potential for AAS to modulate brain reward function and potentially lead to a drug dependence type of abuse pattern.Here are some of my notes on their discussion of AAS and the brain reward syste........ Read more »

Mhillaj E, Morgese MG, Tucci P, Bove M, Schiavone S, & Trabace L. (2015) Effects of anabolic-androgens on brain reward function. Frontiers in neuroscience, 295. PMID: 26379484  

Yates WR, Perry PJ, & Andersen KH. (1990) Illicit anabolic steroid use: a controlled personality study. Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica, 81(6), 548-50. PMID: 2378247  

  • October 1, 2015
  • 12:04 PM
  • 522 views

Does Brain Injury Increase Criminal Behavior?

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Traumatic brain injury produces a variety of cognitive effects.Some individuals will have behavioral disturbances including anger outbursts and interpersonal conflict.A recent study examined the rates of first criminal conviction in a group of 7694 men and women hospitalized with traumatic brain injury (TBI).The study found about a 50 to 75% increase in rates of post-TBI criminal convictions including violent convictions. This effect was noted using either general population controls or sibling ........ Read more »

  • September 13, 2015
  • 10:19 AM
  • 6,046 views

Evolutionary Theory of Consciousness: first reply to comments.

by Sergio Graziosi in Writing my own user manual - Sergio Graziosi's Blog

Two of my readers have kindly provided some very interesting comments and questions on my Evolutionary Theory of Consciousness paper (ETC). Because their comments and questions are very relevant and thought-provoking, I am publishing my reply as a separate post.…Read more ›... Read more »

Edelman DB, Baars BJ, & Seth AK. (2005) Identifying hallmarks of consciousness in non-mammalian species. Consciousness and cognition, 14(1), 169-87. PMID: 15766896  

Verzijden, M., Abbott, J. K.,, von Philipsborn, A., & Loeschcke, V. (2015) Male Drosophila melanogaster learn to prefer an arbitrary trait associated with female mating status. Current Zoology. (2015) Male Drosophila melanogaster learn to prefer an arbitrary trait associated with female mating status. Current Zoology, 61(6). info:/

  • September 2, 2015
  • 12:48 PM
  • 744 views

Managing Fatigue in Match-Play Tennis

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

The 2015 U.S. Tennis Open is in full swing and I ran into an interesting recent manuscript summarizing fatigue in tennis.Fatigue has multiple elements including changes in muscle performance, blood markers of lactic acid and other compounds as well as brain central perception factors.Long multi-set matches can last four or five hours. Obviously, at the end of this type of exertion, players have had to adjust to effects of significant fatigue.Reid and Duffield review the key elements of fatigue i........ Read more »

Reid M, & Duffield R. (2014) The development of fatigue during match-play tennis. British journal of sports medicine. PMID: 24668384  

  • August 25, 2015
  • 03:13 PM
  • 914 views

Microbes and the mind: Who's pulling the strings?

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

There are many examples throughout nature of microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, and parasites influencing the neurobiology and behavior of their hosts. For example, the rabies virus enters the nervous system almost immediately after a bite or scratch and travels to the brain, where it influences neural activity to make aggressive behavior more likely. This, of course, is beneficial for the virus as it increases the probability its infected host will make contact with another susceptible host........ Read more »

  • August 14, 2015
  • 03:10 PM
  • 892 views

For fruit flies, sleep deprivation leads to less aggression and less sex

by Betty Zou in Eat, Read, Science

Sleep-deprived fruit flies exhibit less aggression which can be rescued by feeding them an octopamine agonist. Their reduced aggression negatively impacts their reproductive fitness and leads to fewer successful courtships.... Read more »

  • July 8, 2015
  • 08:30 AM
  • 905 views

What the Heck Are Those Doing There?

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

The neuroendocrine system has lots of exceptions, and this includes the male testes. Just why are they housed outside the main body cavities where they are vulnerable to all sorts of dangers, including your siblings’ kicks? You may think you know, but you probably have only part of the answer. Why is one bigger than the other and why do some animals only have one? ... Read more »

Bogaert, A. (1997) Genital asymmetry in men. Human Reproduction, 12(1), 68-72. DOI: 10.1093/humrep/12.1.68  

  • July 7, 2015
  • 03:50 PM
  • 1,033 views

The powerful influence of placebos on the brain

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

The term placebo effect describes an improvement in the condition of a patient after being given a placebo--an inert substance (e.g. sugar pill) the patient expects may hold some benefit for him. The placebo effect has long been recognized as an unavoidable aspect of medical treatment. Physicians before the 1950s often took advantage of this knowledge by giving patients treatments like bread pills or injections of water with the understanding that patients had a tendency to feel better when they........ Read more »

  • July 3, 2015
  • 05:15 AM
  • 679 views

Here be values (in the brain): how the ventral striatum participates in decision-making

by Pierre Megevand in Neuroscience and Medicine

A new research article shows that the ventral striatum includes a representation of the value attributed to potential choices in a gambling task, and of the decision eventually reached.... Read more »

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