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All posts; Tags Include "Behavioral Neuroscience"

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  • April 8, 2015
  • 11:16 AM
  • 789 views

Adult ADHD and Brain White Matter Deficits

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

In my last post I reviewed a recent diffusion tensor imaging study of ADHD in children. This study found evidence for brain white matter deficits in several ciruitry regions including frontal, temporal and occipital areas.To follow up on this post, I want to highlight a recent study of DTI in adults with ADHD.This study from Brazil recruited 22 drug treatment-naive subjects between the ages of 18 and 50 years of age.This study excluded subjects with a history of substance dependence or other med........ Read more »

  • April 7, 2015
  • 11:57 AM
  • 877 views

ADHD and Brain White Matter Deficits

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Structural brain imaging studies in ADHD fail to find consistent differences from non-ADHD populations.However, there is increasing evidence linking ADHD to changes in brain white matter function.An example of these findings is a recent study from China examining white matter in children with ADHD.ADHD is typically subgrouped into inattention (ADHD-I), hyperactivity ADHD-H or combined categories (ADHD-C). In the recent Chinese study, inattention and combined subgroups of children were compa........ Read more »

  • April 1, 2015
  • 11:20 AM
  • 598 views

Fatherhood and the Biology of Infant Care Behavior

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Early positive parental-infant attachment provides a key developmental advantage.The maternal-infant dyad has received the most research attention. However, fathers also can play an important role in infant development. An increasing number of studies focus on the biology of fatherhood and infant care behavior.Ilanit Gordon along with colleagues in Israel and the United States examined the role of two central neuropeptides in paternal behavior during the first six months of infancy.In their stud........ Read more »

  • March 26, 2015
  • 07:50 AM
  • 1,021 views

Watching a paradigm shift in neuroscience

by Björn Brembs in bjoern.brembs.blog

When I finished my PhD 15 years ago, the neurosciences defined the main function of brains in terms of processing input to compute output: “brain function is ultimately best understood in terms of input/output transformations and how they are produced” […] ↓ Read the rest of this entry...... Read more »

  • March 25, 2015
  • 10:37 AM
  • 716 views

Parental Education As Risk Factor For Eating Disorders

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the risk for anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders.Known risk factors for anorexia nervosa include female gender, young age, family member with anorexia nervosa, weight loss, and participation in weight sensitive sports or activities, i.e. gymnastics, dancing.There has also been evidence that anorexia nervosa is more common in higher socioeconomic classes. This finding has made it one of the few brain disorders more common with this cate........ Read more »

  • March 25, 2015
  • 08:00 AM
  • 1,239 views

This Nose Knows

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Evolution has given the sperm whale the most amazing head in the animal kingdom. They’ve got the biggest brain – all 18 lb.s of it. It has 1900 liters of sperm oil that almost caused in the extinction of the animal. It has one nostril that’s offset on its head, making the whale asymmetric. But most impressively, he can change the density of his head to help him dive or surface, and to do it he uses the same organ he uses for echolocation!... Read more »

  • March 24, 2015
  • 07:00 AM
  • 1,619 views

A Universal Translator By Any Other Name…

by Mark E. Lasbury in The 'Scope

Star Trek wouldn’t have been possible without the universal translator. Who would want to watch a show where characters don’t understand each other – of course, that doesn’t stop people from watching political debates. The technology of a universal translator is easy, we have camera phones that will show you a foreign sign in your own language. It’s the software to decipher a previously unencountered language that’s proving tough to overcome. Are there any uni........ Read more »

Rao, R., Yadav, N., Vahia, M., Joglekar, H., Adhikari, R., & Mahadevan, I. (2009) Entropic Evidence for Linguistic Structure in the Indus Script. Science, 324(5931), 1165-1165. DOI: 10.1126/science.1170391  

Snyder, Benjamin, Regina Barzilay and Kevin Knight. (2010) A Statistical Model for Lost Language Decipherment. Proceedings of the 48th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, ACL 2010. info:/

  • March 22, 2015
  • 03:37 PM
  • 724 views

In Search for the Function of Sleep Continues

by Allison in Dormivigilia

Today, I was a guest host on an awesome neuroscience podcast entitled On Your Mind. We discussed these two papers that aim to yet probe for another significant function of sleep... Read more »

  • March 14, 2015
  • 11:54 PM
  • 1,370 views

New approaches to epilepsy treatment: optogenetics and DREADDs

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

Epilepsy refers to a group of disorders that are characterized by recurrent seizures. It is a relatively common neurological condition, and is considered the most common serious (implying that there is a risk of mortality) brain disorder, affecting around 2.2 million Americans.The seizures associated with epilepsy are not homogenous; they can have a drastically different presentation depending on the patient, the part of the brain the seizure originates in, and how much of the brain the seizure ........ Read more »

  • March 11, 2015
  • 04:57 PM
  • 1,291 views

Why do we remember bad memories easier than good ones?

by Crystals and Catalysts in Crystals and Catalysts

How many times have you found yourself recollecting a bad memory?It doesn't even have to be a very bad memory,  it could be a sad moment, a moment which angered you or even an embarrassing moment. But it is definitely prominent in your mind.All of these things could have happened years ago and you don't want to remember them but they still come back and haunt you from time to time.But the question is why do we remember  these bad memories more than good ones? Time to think ou........ Read more »

Ritchie TD, Batteson TJ, Bohn A, Crawford MT, Ferguson GV, Schrauf RW, Vogl RJ, & Walker WR. (2015) A pancultural perspective on the fading affect bias in autobiographical memory. Memory (Hove, England), 23(2), 278-90. PMID: 24524255  

  • March 11, 2015
  • 09:03 AM
  • 731 views

After Consulting Dr. Wiki, You Should Get a Second Opinion

by Vivek Misra in Uberbrain Research Frontier

We have all been there: waking up in the middle of the night with a pounding headache, nausea, rashes on skin or another ailment with an unexplained origin. More often than not, first thing we’re inclined to do is begin... Read more »

Hasty RT, Garbalosa RC, Barbato VA, Valdes PJ Jr, Powers DW, Hernandez E, John JS, Suciu G, Qureshi F, Popa-Radu M.... (2014) Wikipedia vs peer-reviewed medical literature for information about the 10 most costly medical conditions. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 114(5), 368-73. PMID: 24778001  

  • February 24, 2015
  • 03:55 PM
  • 791 views

Humans in the Wild.

by Allison in Dormivigilia

My graduate lab did a really neat study brainstormed over libations on Bourbon Street in NOLA, actually. Basically, they took the power grid data from the Pacific Northwest and imported it into a circadian-specific computer program to see seasonal and monthly rhythms of human activity based on the power grid. ... Read more »

  • February 19, 2015
  • 01:12 PM
  • 668 views

Circadian and ultradian rhytms in dopaminergic signalling might have consequences for psychopathology

by Caio Maximino in Caio Maximino - Research site and blog

Two recent articles shed light on how rhythmicity in dopaminergic signaling can be of relevance to some psychiatric disorders... Read more »

  • February 16, 2015
  • 03:54 PM
  • 761 views

Cigarette Smoking Leads to Thinning of the Brain’s Cortex

by Vivek Misra in Uberbrain Research Frontier

Cigarette smoking is associated with cognitive decline and dementia, but the extent of the association between smoking and structural brain changes remains unclear. According to recent study published by Karama et.al., in Molecular Psychiatry, “long-term smoking could cause thinning of the outer layer of the brain involved in critical cognitive functions such as memory and language.” Although the cortex grows thinner with normal ageing, the study found that smoking appears to accelerate the ........ Read more »

Karama, S., Ducharme, S., Corley, J., Chouinard-Decorte, F., Starr, J., Wardlaw, J., Bastin, M., & Deary, I. (2015) Cigarette smoking and thinning of the brain’s cortex. Molecular Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1038/mp.2014.187  

  • February 9, 2015
  • 02:28 PM
  • 973 views

Is tanning addictive?

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

In Walden, his masterpiece about noncomformity and simple living, Henry David Thoreau wrote, "Every generation laughs at the old fashions, but follows religiously the new." And while Thoreau was specifically talking about society's capriciousness in embracing new styles of clothing, his quote applies just as well to our preference for one shade of skin color over another. For, while many now consider a medium-dark tan to be both healthier-looking and more attractive than pale skin, only 100 year........ Read more »

Petit, A., Karila, L., Chalmin, F., & Lejoyeux, M. (2014) Phenomenology and psychopathology of excessive indoor tanning. International Journal of Dermatology, 53(6), 664-672. DOI: 10.1111/ijd.12336  

  • February 6, 2015
  • 09:02 AM
  • 1,245 views

Typical Dreams: A Comparison of Dreams Across Cultures

by Jalees Rehman in Fragments of Truth

Have you ever wondered how the content of your dreams differs from that of your friends? How about the dreams of people raised in different countries and cultures? It is not always easy to compare dreams of distinct individuals because the content of dreams depends on our personal experiences. This is why dream researchers have developed standardized dream questionnaires in which common thematic elements are grouped together. These questionnaires can be translated into various languages and used........ Read more »

  • February 4, 2015
  • 05:39 PM
  • 1,035 views

The Psychology of Procrastination: How We Create Categories of the Future

by Jalees Rehman in Fragments of Truth

Paying bills, filling out forms, completing class assignments or submitting grant proposals – we all have the tendency to procrastinate. We may engage in trivial activities such as watching TV shows, playing video games or chatting for an hour and risk missing important deadlines by putting off tasks that are essential for our financial and professional security. Not all humans are equally prone to procrastination, and a recent study suggests that this may in part be due to the fact that t........ Read more »

  • January 16, 2015
  • 11:08 AM
  • 1,474 views

Know your brain: Reward system

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

Where is the reward system?The term reward system refers to a group of structures that are activated by rewarding or reinforcing stimuli (e.g. addictive drugs). When exposed to a rewarding stimulus, the brain responds by increasing release of the neurotransmitter dopamine and thus the structures associated with the reward system are found along the major dopamine pathways in the brain. The mesolimbic dopamine pathway is thought to play a primary role in the reward system. It connects the ventral........ Read more »

Wise RA. (1998) Drug-activation of brain reward pathways. Drug and alcohol dependence, 51(1-2), 13-22. PMID: 9716927  

  • January 11, 2015
  • 01:00 PM
  • 880 views

A decade's worth of data on alcohol and circadian rhythms

by Allison in Dormivigilia

Across the past decade, the lab where I completed my PhD work and our collaborator have undertaken numerous experiments reflected in over 10 original research publications on how alcohol affects circadian timekeeping. The journey continues. ... Read more »

  • January 5, 2015
  • 02:32 PM
  • 1,194 views

Journal Club: Halfsider: a bizarre half-male half-female bird

by GrrlScientist in Maniraptora

SUMMARY: A “halfsider” -- half male and half female bird -- has been mentioned in the news over the holidays. More properly known as bilateral gynandromorphs or tetragametic chimæras, these unusual birds are actually two genetically distinct individuals -- twins -- fused into one being. But what is it like to be such an individual? A recently published paper shares observations of the behaviour and social life of one such individual living in the wild.... Read more »

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