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All posts; Tags Include "Clinical Neuroscience"

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  • August 30, 2012
  • 11:15 AM
  • 1,048 views

Brain Imaging in PTSD: Part III

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Two previous posts examined structural brain imaging and functional connectivity in the anxiety disorder post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).   For the final post in this series, I will summarize the findings of of quantitative meta-analysis of fMRI and PET in PTSD.Jasmeet P. Hayes and colleagues from the VA Boston Healthcare System reviewed 79 functional neuroimaging studies published before February of 2011.  This review included over 300 PTSD subjects and controls.  Data from........ Read more »

  • August 29, 2012
  • 10:49 AM
  • 1,149 views

Brain Imaging in PTSD: Part II

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

In my last post I reviewed a recent structural brain imaging study in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).  This study found evidence of thinning of the cerebral cortex in three regions of men 6 months after a mining accident exposure.   The next two posts will look at some of the research in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography in PTSD.Functional connectivity studies in a variety of mental disorders show promise for a better understanding of ........ Read more »

Sripada RK, King AP, Garfinkel SN, Wang X, Sripada CS, Welsh RC, & Liberzon I. (2012) Altered resting-state amygdala functional connectivity in men with posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of psychiatry , 37(4), 241-9. PMID: 22313617  

  • August 28, 2012
  • 10:40 AM
  • 1,815 views

Brain Imaging in PTSD: Part I

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

There have been a series of recent imaging studies in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subjects worthy of review.  In the next three posts, I will summarize some of these findings.The first study will review a recent structural imaging study.  The next two posts will examine a study of functional connectivity and a meta-analysis of fMRI and PET imaging studies.Liu and colleagues from China have published an interesting structural brain imaging study using an imaging technique know........ Read more »

  • August 27, 2012
  • 10:46 AM
  • 858 views

Sleep and Parkinson's Disease

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

The neurotransmitter deficiency in Parkinson's disease interacts with important sleep mechanisms.  Patients with Parkinson's disease report increased rates of a variety of sleep problems.  REM sleep behavior disorder is a disorder commonly linked to Parkinson's disease as well as Lewy body dementia.  I have previously posted commentary on a study describing the value of using REM sleep behavior disorder is the differential diagnosis of dementia here.A new study has further examine........ Read more »

Svensson E, Beiske AG, Loge JH, Beiske KK, & Sivertsen B. (2012) Sleep problems in Parkinson¿s disease: a community-based study in Norway. BMC neurology, 12(1), 71. PMID: 22883600  

  • August 23, 2012
  • 11:26 AM
  • 806 views

Trends In Epidemiology of Eating Disorders

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Monitoring changes in the incidence, prevalence and mortality rates in clinical neuroscience disorders represents an important role for research.  Changes in rates of disorder over time may provide clues into diagnostic issues, key environmental factors and the effects of public health prevention interventions.Frederick Smink and colleagues from the Netherlands recently published a review of the epidemiology of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.  The review co........ Read more »

  • August 21, 2012
  • 12:06 PM
  • 1,193 views

Imaging the Effects of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Commonly available clinical brain imaging techniques do not provide reliable or valid information in mild traumatic brain injury (TBI).  This has led to increased research on evolving imaging techniques.Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) hold promise as a potential future clinical brain imaging.  DTI can assess microstructure changes in brain white matter.   Aoki and colleagues from Japan recently summarized the current knowledge of DTI in mild traumatic brain injury.This review used ........ Read more »

Aoki Y, Inokuchi R, Gunshin M, Yahagi N, & Suwa H. (2012) Diffusion tensor imaging studies of mild traumatic brain injury: a meta-analysis. Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry, 83(9), 870-6. PMID: 22797288  

  • August 16, 2012
  • 11:03 AM
  • 1,419 views

Risk Factors For Sleep Apnea in Hypertension

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Sleep apnea occurs at higher rates in those with hypertension compared to those without hypertension.  Some of this elevated risk may be due sharing of obesity as a risk factor. The identification of sleep apnea in those with hypertension is clinically important.  Sleep apnea may contribute to blood pressure elevation.  Additionally, sleep apnea appears to independently contribute to risk for cardiovascular mortality.  Some of this increased vascular risk may relate to the sy........ Read more »

Broström A, Sunnergren O, Årestedt K, Johansson P, Ulander M, Riegel B, & Svanborg E. (2012) Factors associated with undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnoea in hypertensive primary care patients. Scandinavian journal of primary health care, 30(2), 107-13. PMID: 22643156  

  • August 15, 2012
  • 11:23 AM
  • 711 views

Research-based ADHD Treatment Options

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Research-based information on the treatment options available for ADHD in children and adults can be hard to find.  This often leaves parents and other family members confused by the overwhelming volume of information.  Many treatments have no or limited research data on safety and effectiveness.This makes high-quality research reviews important.  Such a review has been published by the Agency for Healthcare Research.  A group of top ADHD researchers reviewed 223 studies on t........ Read more »

John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science. (2005) Treatment Options for ADHD in Children and Teens: A Review of Research for Parents and Caregivers. Agency for Healthcare Research Quality. PMID: 22855973  

  • July 30, 2012
  • 12:51 PM
  • 1,133 views

Cannabis Dependence Risk Factors: Neuroticism

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Cannabis appears to have a lower risk of dependence in users than other drugs such as heroin, cocaine or nicotine.  Despite this lower risk, some cannabis users do go on to develop typical substance dependence signs and symptoms like daily high-dose use and impairment in social and occupational function.Genetic factors appear to influence risk for a variety types of drug dependence.  I will review some of the genetic studies of cannabis dependence in a future post.  A recent study........ Read more »

  • July 26, 2012
  • 12:41 PM
  • 1,136 views

The Future of Psychiatric Genetics

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Progress in understanding the genetic contributions to psychiatric disorders has been significant over the last five years.  However, this progress lags compared to the progress made in other medical disorders.  Some of this lag relates to the complex genetic heterogeneity in psychiatric illnesses.  However, the current state of knowledge does provide optimism for the future of psychiatric genetics.Patrick Sullivan from the University of North Carolina along with colleagues from H........ Read more »

  • July 23, 2012
  • 12:20 PM
  • 729 views

Education and Premature Mortality Risk

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Advanced educational level is linked to risk of premature death from a variety of clinical neuroscience disorders.  Stroke risk is increased significantly in low with a high school educational level compared to those with a college degree or more.  Monitoring and understanding these types of discrepancies is an important aspect of public health.A recent study of education and premature mortality risk has been published in the journal Plos One.  J Ma from the Surveillance Research ........ Read more »

  • July 18, 2012
  • 10:11 AM
  • 972 views

Drug Combo Qsymia Approved for Obesity

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently approved the combination drug Qsymia for the treatment of obesity.  Qsymia contains the drugs phentermine and topiramate and comes in two dose combinations phentermine 7.5 mg/topiramate 46 mg and a double-strength combination of phentermine 15.0mg/topiramate 92 mg.I have previously reviewed a 56 week clinical trial of this drug combination.  This study found an average weight loss of 17.8 pounds for the lower dose combination and an avera........ Read more »

  • July 17, 2012
  • 11:37 AM
  • 783 views

Sleep Problems Increased in Diabetes

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Diabetes affects an estimated 25.8 million individuals in the United States or approximately 8.3% of the total population.  The risk of diabetes increases with age with a prevalence rate of 3.7% in the 20-44 year age group climbing to a prevalence rate of 26.9% of individuals 65 years of age or older.A recent study examined the prevalence of a variety of sleep problems in those with diabetes compared to those without diabetes.  Platinga and colleagues compared the rates of the followin........ Read more »

  • July 16, 2012
  • 11:38 AM
  • 1,230 views

Autism Brain Deficits in Social Judgment

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Children and adults with autism show deficits in the ability to make correct judgment of social situations.  Judging social settings accurately requires the integrating both verbal and non-verbal cues.   Although children with autism appear to be able to accurately judge verbal and non-verbal cues, they show deficits in integrating both types of information in making a global judgement of social situations.An important research question is:  Where are the brain structures and circ........ Read more »

Watanabe T, Yahata N, Abe O, Kuwabara H, Inoue H, Takano Y, Iwashiro N, Natsubori T, Aoki Y, Takao H.... (2012) Diminished Medial Prefrontal Activity behind Autistic Social Judgments of Incongruent Information. PloS one, 7(6). PMID: 22745788  

  • July 13, 2012
  • 12:05 PM
  • 1,122 views

Biomarkers in Early-onset Alzheimer's Disease

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Precuneus Region in Teal Color in Posterior BrainThe timing and sequence of brain changes in Alzheimer's disease are important factors for improving early diagnosis and treatment.  Key research tools such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) provide methods to better understand the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease.The research design needed to optimally understand the development of Alzheimer's disease would be a large prospective longitudinal stu........ Read more »

Bateman RJ, Xiong C, Benzinger TL, Fagan AM, Goate A, Fox NC, Marcus DS, Cairns NJ, Xie X, Blazey TM.... (2012) Clinical and Biomarker Changes in Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer's Disease. The New England journal of medicine. PMID: 22784036  

  • July 12, 2012
  • 11:38 AM
  • 1,785 views

Depression and Brain White Matter Hyperintensities

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Magnetic resonance brain imaging (MRI) provides a powerful tool for studying brain structure.  One specific clinical and research advance in MRI has been the recognition and understanding of what has been named white matter hyperintensities (WMHI).  These types of age-related brain changes were less well identified by earlier computerized tomography brain imaging techniques.I have previously posted a study that examined the clinical significance of brain WMHI.  This research meta-........ Read more »

Bohlega S, Al Shubili A, Edris A, Alreshaid A, Alkhairallah T, AlSous MW, Farah S, & Abu-Amero KK. (2007) CADASIL in Arabs: clinical and genetic findings. BMC medical genetics, 67. PMID: 17996090  

  • July 11, 2012
  • 11:40 AM
  • 747 views

Dogs and Childhood Health

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Pets in the home provide opportunities for a type of social interaction many humans find comforting.  Additionally, there appear to be a variety of health benefits associated with dogs and other pets.I have previously posted on the association of regular dog walking with higher rates of meeting physical activity guidelines and lower rates of obesity.Now a recently published research study suggests the presence of a dog (or cat) in the home is associated with lower rates of respiratory illne........ Read more »

  • July 10, 2012
  • 10:59 AM
  • 976 views

Alcohol Consumption and Bariatric Surgery

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

The effects of bariatric (weight loss) surgery on physiology and metabolism is becoming more clear with well-designed clinical research. One potential adverse effect of bariatric surgery is alcohol use and abuse.  A few small surveys of bariatric surgery following their operations noted alcohol-related problems in a small number of patients.  This has prompted a larger study recently published in the journal JAMA that followed 2458 subjects from ten U.S. hospital bariatric surger progr........ Read more »

King WC, Chen JY, Mitchell JE, Kalarchian MA, Steffen KJ, Engel SG, Courcoulas AP, Pories WJ, & Yanovski SZ. (2012) Prevalence of Alcohol Use Disorders Before and After Bariatric SurgeryAlcohol Use Disorders and Bariatric Surgery. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 1-10. PMID: 22710289  

  • July 9, 2012
  • 10:31 AM
  • 1,110 views

Best Diets for Weight Loss Maintenance

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Weight-loss maintenance presents a significant clinical challenge in the treatment of obesity.  Up to 95% of individuals losing a significant amount of weight will be unable to maintain weight loss after one to two years of follow up.Changes in resting energy metabolism with weight loss appear to promote weight regain following weight loss.  The body adapts to weight loss by ratcheting down daily resting energy (calorie) levels.  The result is a lower daily caloric intake required........ Read more »

Ebbeling CB, Swain JF, Feldman HA, Wong WW, Hachey DL, Garcia-Lago E, & Ludwig DS. (2012) Effects of dietary composition on energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association, 307(24), 2627-34. PMID: 22735432  

  • June 12, 2012
  • 10:56 AM
  • 876 views

Tinnitus Severity and Depression

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Tinnitus or persistent ringing in the ear is a common clinical neuroscience disorder.  The prevalence of tinnitus in the general population approaches 25% with up to 8 to 10% reporting tinnitus severe enough to produce distress or impairment in daily activities.Individuals with severe tinnitus report higher levels of depression symptoms compared to those without tinnitus.  It is unclear whether tinnitus precedes depression or vice versa.  A better understanding of the relationship........ Read more »

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