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  • April 17, 2015
  • 04:38 AM
  • 748 views

Rhabdomyomas: an additional BHD hamartoma phenotype?

by Joana Guedes in BHD Research Blog

Hamartomas are benign, focal malformations formed by an excess of normal tissue growing in a disorganised fashion. Several hamartoma syndromes have been linked to aberrant mTOR signalling including BHD and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). In addition to the predisposition of BHD patients to develop hair follicle hamartomas or fibrofolliculomas (Birt et al., 1977), Fuyura et al., (2012) propose that the pulmonary cysts in BHD patients are hamartoma-like cystic alveolar formations. The benign nat........ Read more »

Bondavalli D, White SM, Steer A, Pflaumer A, & Winship I. (2015) Is cardiac rhabdomyoma a feature of Birt Hogg Dubé syndrome?. American journal of medical genetics. Part A, 167(4), 802-4. PMID: 25655561  

  • April 16, 2015
  • 10:32 AM
  • 640 views

What is Neurofeedback Training for ADHD?

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

There are a variety of behavioral strategies for treating the attention and activity components of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).One of these strategies is known as neurofeedback. A recent study in the journal Pediatrics found evidence for effectiveness of in-school neurofeedback for ADHD in a randomized controlled trial.In this trial, 104 children between the ages of 7 and 11 years of age were randomized to one of three research arms: in-school neurofeedback, cognitive th........ Read more »

  • April 13, 2015
  • 10:22 AM
  • 719 views

Treating Insomnia in Children with ADHD

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Insomnia commonly complicates the clinical presentation and treatment in children with ADHD.Stimulant therapy may provide significant relief for daytime attention and hyperactivity symptoms. However, stimulants do not appear to help with comorbid insomnia. In fact, stimulant therapy may cause more problems with insomnia in ADHD.Behavioral treatments are known to be effective in children without ADHD. Now we have a recently published study showing the effectiveness of behavioral treatment of inso........ Read more »

  • April 9, 2015
  • 10:38 AM
  • 727 views

Brain Volume Differences in ADHD Normalize By Adulthood

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Brain volume differences in ADHD have been documented in some childhood studies.ADHD symptoms diminish with maturation in many but not all individuals. It is unclear whether this improvement in symptoms is also related to maturation of brain regions.A recent study from the Netherlands provides some answers on this issue. A. Marten H. Onnink and colleagues performed a structural MRI study of 119 adults with ADHD compared to a group of controls.This study is important because it examined effects o........ Read more »

Onnink AM, Zwiers MP, Hoogman M, Mostert JC, Kan CC, Buitelaar J, & Franke B. (2014) Brain alterations in adult ADHD: effects of gender, treatment and comorbid depression. European neuropsychopharmacology : the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 24(3), 397-409. PMID: 24345721  

  • April 8, 2015
  • 11:16 AM
  • 770 views

Adult ADHD and Brain White Matter Deficits

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

In my last post I reviewed a recent diffusion tensor imaging study of ADHD in children. This study found evidence for brain white matter deficits in several ciruitry regions including frontal, temporal and occipital areas.To follow up on this post, I want to highlight a recent study of DTI in adults with ADHD.This study from Brazil recruited 22 drug treatment-naive subjects between the ages of 18 and 50 years of age.This study excluded subjects with a history of substance dependence or other med........ Read more »

  • April 7, 2015
  • 11:57 AM
  • 854 views

ADHD and Brain White Matter Deficits

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Structural brain imaging studies in ADHD fail to find consistent differences from non-ADHD populations.However, there is increasing evidence linking ADHD to changes in brain white matter function.An example of these findings is a recent study from China examining white matter in children with ADHD.ADHD is typically subgrouped into inattention (ADHD-I), hyperactivity ADHD-H or combined categories (ADHD-C). In the recent Chinese study, inattention and combined subgroups of children were compa........ Read more »

  • April 1, 2015
  • 11:20 AM
  • 588 views

Fatherhood and the Biology of Infant Care Behavior

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Early positive parental-infant attachment provides a key developmental advantage.The maternal-infant dyad has received the most research attention. However, fathers also can play an important role in infant development. An increasing number of studies focus on the biology of fatherhood and infant care behavior.Ilanit Gordon along with colleagues in Israel and the United States examined the role of two central neuropeptides in paternal behavior during the first six months of infancy.In their stud........ Read more »

  • March 31, 2015
  • 05:45 AM
  • 1,499 views

African-Americans Receive Heart Transplants at Hospitals With Poor Performance Track Records

by Jalees Rehman in The Next Regeneration

About five million people in the US suffer from heart failure, and approximately half of them die within five years of being diagnosed. Only about 2,500 hundred people a year receive a heart transplant – the treatment of last resort. A new heart can be life-saving, but it is also life-changing. Even under the best conditions, the surgery is complex, and recovery carries a heavy physical and emotional burden.
... Read more »

  • March 30, 2015
  • 11:25 AM
  • 802 views

One Parent,Two Parents and Child Well-Being

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

The structure of the family in the United States and other countries is changing. This change has occurred over a relatively brief period of time. Data noted in the study I am reviewing today shows that between 1970 and 2013 in the U.S.:Percentage of children living with two parents dropped 24%Percentage of children living with a single mother increased to 23.7%Percentage of children living with a single father quadrupled to 4.1%Percentage of children living with a grandparent doubled to 6......... Read more »

  • March 26, 2015
  • 11:17 AM
  • 699 views

Parenting Moderates Childhood Brain Stress Response

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Child brain development benefits from a positive parenting style and environment.The mechanism for this positive effect is unclear but moderation of the stress response in the growing child is an area of research interest.Haroon Sheikh and colleagues from the University of Ontario in Canada recently published results on a study of parenting and brain development in children.In their study, a cohort of 46 six year old girls underwent brain imaging using a technique known as diffusion tensor imagi........ Read more »

  • March 25, 2015
  • 10:37 AM
  • 691 views

Parental Education As Risk Factor For Eating Disorders

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the risk for anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders.Known risk factors for anorexia nervosa include female gender, young age, family member with anorexia nervosa, weight loss, and participation in weight sensitive sports or activities, i.e. gymnastics, dancing.There has also been evidence that anorexia nervosa is more common in higher socioeconomic classes. This finding has made it one of the few brain disorders more common with this cate........ Read more »

  • March 23, 2015
  • 11:01 AM
  • 759 views

Smoking in Pregnancy and Child Brain Development

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Smoking during pregnancy produces significant and diverse effects on prenatal development.These adverse effects include dysfunction in prenatal and early childhood brain development.Hanan El Marroun and colleagues from the Netherlands recently published an important childhood brain imaging study of smoking during pregnancy.One hundred and thirteen children exposed to tobacco during pregnancy were compared to a control group of unexposed children.Both groups of children between 6 and 8 years of a........ Read more »

El Marroun H, Schmidt MN, Franken IH, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, van der Lugt A, Verhulst FC, Tiemeier H, & White T. (2014) Prenatal tobacco exposure and brain morphology: a prospective study in young children. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 39(4), 792-800. PMID: 24096296  

  • March 17, 2015
  • 11:56 AM
  • 830 views

Physical Exercise Effects on Brain EEG

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

There are a variety of methods to study the effects on exercise on brain function. Brain imaging techniques such as fMRI provides a new tool to search for regional effects of acute and chronic exercise.Another tool that has received less attention is the electroencephalogram or EEG. One EEG measure of brain function is the individual alpha peak frequency or iAPF.The iAPF is positively correlated with arousal, attention and speed of information processing. Higher iAPF is linked to faster spe........ Read more »

Gutmann B, Mierau A, Hülsdünker T, Hildebrand C, Przyklenk A, Hollmann W, & Strüder HK. (2015) Effects of physical exercise on individual resting state EEG alpha peak frequency. Neural plasticity, 717312. PMID: 25759762  

  • February 18, 2015
  • 11:53 AM
  • 629 views

Exercise Guidelines in Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

A series of seven guidelines for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has recently been published.These guidelines resulted from a conference of experts in nutrition and the brain.The guidelines included a recommendation for 40 minutes of aerobic exercise three times a week.Support for this exercise recommendation by experts was linked to 2 areas of research:Observational studies show lower rates of AD in regular exercise groups compared to sedentary groupsA single clinical trial found red........ Read more »

Barnard ND, Bush AI, Ceccarelli A, Cooper J, de Jager CA, Erickson KI, Fraser G, Kesler S, Levin SM, Lucey B.... (2014) Dietary and lifestyle guidelines for the prevention of Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiology of aging. PMID: 24913896  

  • February 18, 2015
  • 07:30 AM
  • 886 views

Space - It'll Mess You Up

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Extended spaceflight can wreak havoc on your body – your bones, muscles, brain and vestibular system all pay the price for exploration. And while your body might adapt to space, big problems can occur when you return to Earth gravity. You go into space as a virile astronaut, but return as fragile as a your great grandmother. ... Read more »

Finetti, F., Paccani, S., Rosenbaum, J., & Baldari, C. (2011) Intraflagellar transport: a new player at the immune synapse. Trends in Immunology, 32(4), 139-145. DOI: 10.1016/j.it.2011.02.001  

Troshichev, O., Gorshkov, E., Shapovalov, S., Sokolovskii, V., Ivanov, V., & Vorobeitchikov, V. (2004) Variations of the gravitational field as a motive power for rhythmics of biochemical processes. Advances in Space Research, 34(7), 1619-1624. DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2004.02.013  

Fitts, R., Trappe, S., Costill, D., Gallagher, P., Creer, A., Colloton, P., Peters, J., Romatowski, J., Bain, J., & Riley, D. (2010) Prolonged space flight-induced alterations in the structure and function of human skeletal muscle fibres. The Journal of Physiology, 588(18), 3567-3592. DOI: 10.1113/jphysiol.2010.188508  

  • February 4, 2015
  • 09:32 AM
  • 631 views

Exercise in the Elderly: BDNF and Executive Function

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Exercise promotes cognitive function in children, adults and elderly individuals.The mechanism for this effect is unclear. Some of the effect may be due to a general improvement in vascular function and health.Another potential mechanism is via increased neuroplasticity mediated by neurotrophic factors.Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF) is a known contributor to brain neuroplasticity. Levels of BNDF can be determined with serum assays.RL Leckie and colleagues recently found support for BND........ Read more »

Leckie RL, Oberlin LE, Voss MW, Prakash RS, Szabo-Reed A, Chaddock-Heyman L, Phillips SM, Gothe NP, Mailey E, Vieira-Potter VJ.... (2014) BDNF mediates improvements in executive function following a 1-year exercise intervention. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 985. PMID: 25566019  

  • February 3, 2015
  • 07:30 AM
  • 475 views

Liver Fibrosis Starts Early After Hepatitis C Infection

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Adeel A. Butt, MD, MS, FACP, FIDSA Adjunct Associate Professor of Medicine and Clinical and Translational Science University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine   MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? … Continue reading →
The post Liver Fibrosis Starts Early After Hepatitis C Infection appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Inte........ Read more »

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:, & Adeel A. Butt, MD, MS, FACP, FIDSA. (2015) Liver Fibrosis Starts Early After Hepatitis C Infection. MedicalResearch.comm. info:/

  • February 2, 2015
  • 11:39 AM
  • 862 views

Exercise in the Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Growing evidence links physical activity to improved cognitive outcome in elderly individuals.Few studies have examined effects of exercise on those at highest risk for Alzheimer's disease.J Carson Smith and colleagues recently published a prospective study of a cohort of older adults using structural magnetic resonance imaging.The key elements of the design of their study included the following elements:Participants: 97 adults between the ages of 65 and 89Physical activity level: Frequency and ........ Read more »

Smith JC, Nielson KA, Woodard JL, Seidenberg M, Durgerian S, Hazlett KE, Figueroa CM, Kandah CC, Kay CD, Matthews MA.... (2014) Physical activity reduces hippocampal atrophy in elders at genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease. Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 61. PMID: 24795624  

  • January 28, 2015
  • 12:24 PM
  • 430 views

Carotid Atherosclerosis Predicted by Cholesterol-Overloaded HDL Particles

by Marie Benz in MedicalResearch.com

MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dong Zhao MD.PhD Deputy Director & Professor Beijing Institute of Heart,Lung & Blood Vessel Diseases Capital Medical University Beijing Anzhen Hospital Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Dong … Continue reading →
The post Carotid Atherosclerosis Predicted by Cholesterol-Overloaded HDL Particles appeared first on MedicalResearch.co........ Read more »

Interview with Dong Zhao MD.PhD. (2015) Carotid Atherosclerosis Predicted by Cholesterol-Overloaded HDL Particles. MedicalResearch.com. info:/

  • January 26, 2015
  • 10:02 AM
  • 639 views

Obesity, Inflammation and Cognitive Decline

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

The rate of cognitive decline with aging is quite variable. Identifying important components of this process is needed for developing interventions to reduce the burden of Alzheimer's and other dementias.Excess inflammation has been linked to obesity as well as aging-related cognitive decline.Archana Singh-Manoux and colleagues recently published a study of the association between blood markers of inflammation and cognitive decline.This study used data from the U.K. Whitehall II cohort, a g........ Read more »

Singh-Manoux A, Dugravot A, Brunner E, Kumari M, Shipley M, Elbaz A, & Kivimaki M. (2014) Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein as predictors of cognitive decline in late midlife. Neurology, 83(6), 486-93. PMID: 24991031  

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