I ran across an interesting genetic study examining the potential genetic contributions to educational attainment. There have been quite a few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of intelligence quotient (IQ).... Read more »
Rietveld CA, Medland SE, Derringer J, Yang J, Esko T, Martin NW, Westra HJ, Shakhbazov K, Abdellaoui A, Agrawal A.... (2013) GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment. Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6139), 1467-71. PMID: 23722424
In today’s economic environment, globalization of pharmaceutical products has turned into the key to success for drug manufacturers. Investors in new drug development are therefore required to do more at less cost and faster rate now. However, sponsors are facing a new challenge due to ethnic factors, as the pharmacodynamic or clinical data in the original population could vary with the population in the new region. ... Read more »
The recent PBS Frontline series on concussion sequelae in the NFL is an important advance in the discussion on this important topic. Significant research is needed to better understand the risk of football-related brain injury.An additional important issue on this topic related to the interaction between sport-related brain trauma and developmental stage. Football training and full-contact games begin during elementary school in many parts of the U.S. So this is not just an NFL........ Read more »
Savica R, Parisi JE, Wold LE, Josephs KA, & Ahlskog JE. (2012) High school football and risk of neurodegeneration: a community-based study. Mayo Clinic proceedings. Mayo Clinic, 87(4), 335-40. PMID: 22469346
If you watch the 2013 World Series that opens tomorrow night, you are likely to see pitchers using ice on their pitching arms between innings.The use of ice on key muscles between use seems counterintuitive. Isn't it best to key a muscloskeletal region warm? After all, we "warm-up" before using muscles all the time in a variety of activities.I had thought that icing was designed primarily to reduce muscle stiffness and soreness during the recover period.However, I recently ran into a........ Read more »
Bishop SH, Herron R, Ryan G, Katica C, & Bishop P. (2013) THE EFFECT OF INTERMITTENT ARM AND SHOULDER COOLING ON BASEBALL PITCHING VELOCITY. Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength . PMID: 24077378
The visuomotor process involved in hitting a baseball is complex and not completely understood.At one time, hitters were told they must follow the path of the baseball until it hit their bat in order to succeed.However, further study found the speed of a baseball exceeds the speed of the human eye for tracking objects.It is unclear whether using vision training exercises increases hitting ability above and beyond that associated with hitting practice.A study from the University of Cincinnati att........ Read more »
Clark JF, Ellis JK, Bench J, Khoury J, & Graman P. (2012) High-performance vision training improves batting statistics for University of Cincinnati baseball players. PloS one, 7(1). PMID: 22276103
Similar to Blastocystis, Dientamoeba fragilis is a very common parasite in countries where other intestinal parasites are of low endemic occurrence. We are exploring the clinical significance of these parasites.... Read more »
Engsbro AL, Stensvold CR, Nielsen HV, & Bytzer P. (2012) Treatment of Dientamoeba fragilis in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 87(6), 1046-52. PMID: 23091195
Ogren J, Dienus O, Löfgren S, Iveroth P, & Matussek A. (2013) Dientamoeba fragilis DNA detection in Enterobius vermicularis eggs. Pathogens and disease. PMID: 23893951
Johnson EH, Windsor JJ, & Clark CG. (2004) Emerging from obscurity: biological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of Dientamoeba fragilis. Clinical microbiology reviews, 17(3), 553. PMID: 15258093
Stark DJ, Beebe N, Marriott D, Ellis JT, & Harkness J. (2006) Dientamoebiasis: clinical importance and recent advances. Trends in parasitology, 22(2), 92-6. PMID: 16380293
Röser D, Nejsum P, Carlsgart AJ, Nielsen HV, & Stensvold CR. (2013) DNA of Dientamoeba fragilis detected within surface-sterilized eggs of Enterobius vermicularis. Experimental parasitology, 133(1), 57-61. PMID: 23116599
Röser D, Simonsen J, Nielsen HV, Stensvold CR, & Mølbak K. (2013) Dientamoeba fragilis in Denmark: epidemiological experience derived from four years of routine real-time PCR. European journal of clinical microbiology , 32(10), 1303-10. PMID: 23609513
Stark D, Barratt J, Roberts T, Marriott D, Harkness J, & Ellis J. (2010) A review of the clinical presentation of dientamoebiasis. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene, 82(4), 614-9. PMID: 20348509
Stensvold CR, Clark CG, & Röser D. (2013) Limited intra-genetic diversity in Dientamoeba fragilis housekeeping genes. Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 284-6. PMID: 23681023
Stensvold CR, Lewis HC, Hammerum AM, Porsbo LJ, Nielsen SS, Olsen KE, Arendrup MC, Nielsen HV, & Mølbak K. (2009) Blastocystis: unravelling potential risk factors and clinical significance of a common but neglected parasite. Epidemiology and infection, 137(11), 1655-63. PMID: 19393117
There is growing evidence of a role for inflammation in the etiology of some types of mood disorders. Patients receiving the antiviral inflammatory drug interferon commonly demonstrate symptoms of depression. Depression rates are increased in patients suffering from other known inflammatory diseases such as type 2 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis.A recent animal study of depression induced by inflammation supports further research into the potential for anti-inflammatory drugs as novel ant........ Read more »
Izaque S. Maciel, Rodrigo B. M. Silva, [..], and Maria M. Campos. (2013) Synergistic Effects of Celecoxib and Bupropion in a Model of Chronic Inflammation-Related Depression in Mice. PLOS ONE. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077227
Someone in my Twitter stream kindly shared a link to an article this morning on how removing the PD-1 brake…
... Read more »
John LB, Devaud C, Duong CP, Yong CS, Beavis PA, Haynes NM, Chow MT, Smyth MJ, Kershaw MH, & Darcy PK. (2013) Anti-PD-1 Antibody Therapy Potently Enhances the Eradication of Established Tumors By Gene-Modified T Cells. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. PMID: 23873688
Morales-Kastresana A, Labiano S, Quetglas JI, & Melero I. (2013) Better Performance of CARs Deprived of the PD-1 Brake. Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. PMID: 24004672
Curran MA, Montalvo W, Yagita H, & Allison JP. (2010) PD-1 and CTLA-4 combination blockade expands infiltrating T cells and reduces regulatory T and myeloid cells within B16 melanoma tumors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(9), 4275-80. PMID: 20160101
There is increased interest in the relationship between mood and anxiety disorders and cardiovascular function.Presence of depression appears to be an independent risk factor for the future development of cardiovascular disease.Patients with depression and myocardial infarction demonstrate increased risk for future cardiac events including cardiac death.The exact mechanism for the interaction of depression and cardiovascular function is unclear. Depression appears to be associated with a f........ Read more »
Hanson CS, Outhred T, Brunoni AR, Malhi GS, & Kemp AH. (2013) The impact of escitalopram on vagally mediated cardiovascular function to stress and the moderating effects of vigorous physical activity: a randomized controlled treatment study in healthy participants. Frontiers in physiology, 259. PMID: 24069000
The first boom in treatment for male erectile dysfunction came in the 1920s and 1930 when the Russian-origin French surgeon Serge Abramovitch Voronoff started to prescribe surgical implantation of monkey testicles in the human scrotum to augment sexual prowess. This gained quite a bit of fan following for a couple of decades and brough Voronoff […]... Read more »
Klotz L. (2005) How (not) to communicate new scientific information: a memoir of the famous Brindley lecture. BJU international, 96(7), 956-7. PMID: 16225508
The Freakonomics podcast is about one of ten that I follow regularly. Steven Levitt and Stephen Dubner have written two popular books, Freakonomics and Superfreakonomics.Levitt and Dubner utilize advanaces in statistical analysis techniques to examine important societal issues related to economics.In a recent podcast, the replayed an episode that looked at suicide. This episode is an interesting review of some of the current issues in suicide epidemiology.Here are my notes from the episode........ Read more »
Wray M, Miller M, Gurvey J, Carroll J, & Kawachi I. (2008) Leaving Las Vegas: Exposure to Las Vegas and risk of suicide. Social science , 67(11), 1882-8. PMID: 18938005
Niederkrotenthaler T, Fu KW, Yip PS, Fong DY, Stack S, Cheng Q, & Pirkis J. (2012) Changes in suicide rates following media reports on celebrity suicide: a meta-analysis. Journal of epidemiology and community health, 66(11), 1037-42. PMID: 22523342
Rihmer Z, Gonda X, Kapitany B, & Dome P. (2013) Suicide in Hungary-epidemiological and clinical perspectives. Annals of general psychiatry, 12(1), 21. PMID: 23803500
Weight gain is an key adverse event associated with many drug classes in psychopharmacology.Understanding this adverse event is important in patient selection and management.Genetics may play a key role in the risk for the type and severity of adverse events. EL Nurmi and colleagues recently published an exploratory study of the role of genetics in weight gain associated with autism in children and adolescents participating in a clinical trial. The key elements of the design of this s........ Read more »
Nurmi EL, Spilman SL, Whelan F, Scahill LL, Aman MG, McDougle CJ, Arnold LE, Handen B, Johnson C, Sukhodolsky DG.... (2013) Moderation of antipsychotic-induced weight gain by energy balance gene variants in the RUPP autism network risperidone studies. Translational psychiatry. PMID: 23799528
I'm often asked, "How long will it take to finally have an HIV vaccine? Are we close? What about this study that published good results on an HIV vaccine?" Right now, the HIV community is generally optimistic that we will indeed have an HIV vaccine within the next decade. This is based on the relatively recent discovery of new broadly neutralizing antibodies and the mildly positive results obtained by one of the five major efficacy trials, the RV144 Thai trial, which found a 31% reduction in HIV........ Read more »
Supachai Rerks-Ngarm, et al. (2009) Vaccination with ALVAC and AIDSVAX to Prevent HIV-1 Infection in Thailand. N Engl J Med. DOI: 10.1783/147118910790291082
A new NEJM article on KRAS and metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) caught my eye last week. One of the challenges…
... Read more »
Douillard JY, Oliner KS, Siena S, Tabernero J, Burkes R, Barugel M, Humblet Y, Bodoky G, Cunningham D, Jassem J.... (2013) Panitumumab-FOLFOX4 treatment and RAS mutations in colorectal cancer. The New England journal of medicine, 369(11), 1023-34. PMID: 24024839
Berlin J. (2013) Beyond exon 2--the developing story of RAS mutations in colorectal cancer. The New England journal of medicine, 369(11), 1059-60. PMID: 24024844
In a previous post, I summarized some of the evolving research highlighting the function of the human brain insular cortex.A recent review article examined the role of the insular cortex in processes related to hunger, eating and obesity.Sabine Frank and colleagues from Tubingen, Germany published this summary in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience.I will outline some of their review relevant to bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa and obesity.Food Processing Role of InsulaWhile the hypothalamus plays ........ Read more »
There has been considerable noise coming out of the UK lately about successes in clinical trial enrollment.
First, a couple months ago came the rather dramatic announcement that clinical trial participation in the UK had "tripled over the last 6 years". That announcement, by the chief executive of the
creature of bombast: is Sir John writing press releases for the NIHR?
National Institute of Health Research's Clinical Research Network, was quickly and uncritically picked up by t........ Read more »
Ennis L, & Wykes T. (2013) Impact of patient involvement in mental health research: longitudinal study. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. PMID: 24029538
Mental health clinicians struggle with understanding complex presentations when more than one psychiatric diagnosis is present.Typically, the greater the number of diagnoses, the more challenging is both diagnosis and treatment.I have previously published a study of ADHD symptoms and diagnosis in a series of subjects with a variety of eating disorders. This study found inattention as a common symptom in adults with eating disorders.However, when examining the origin of inattention, few ano........ Read more »
Seitz J, Kahraman-Lanzerath B, Legenbauer T, Sarrar L, Herpertz S, Salbach-Andrae H, Konrad K, & Herpertz-Dahlmann B. (2013) The role of impulsivity, inattention and comorbid ADHD in patients with bulimia nervosa. PloS one, 8(5). PMID: 23700439
Yates WR, Lund BC, Johnson C, Mitchell J, & McKee P. (2009) Attention-deficit hyperactivity symptoms and disorder in eating disorder inpatients. The International journal of eating disorders, 42(4), 375-8. PMID: 19040267
Incidence and prevalence rates are two key measures in epidemiology. Incidence refers to the number of new cases over a period of time. Prevalence refers to the total number of cases in a given period of time (incidence rates plus number of previous cases).One method of examining trends in medical disorders is to look at records from physicians offices. The United Kingdom designed and uses a database known as the General Practice Research Database. This database is a powe........ Read more »
Micali N, Hagberg KW, Petersen I, & Treasure JL. (2013) The incidence of eating disorders in the UK in 2000-2009: findings from the General Practice Research Database. BMJ open, 3(5). PMID: 23793681
Continuing from Part I to look at the results of the study of high-dose SL (SubLingual) NTG (NiTroGlycerin – GTN GlycerylTriNitrate in Commonwealth countries) by EMS for CHF (Congestive Heart Failure) that Peter Canning wrote about.
For CHF, more NTG does not produce more of a drop in blood pressure.
If you disagree, provide evidence.... Read more »
Clemency BM, Thompson JJ, Tundo GN, & Lindstrom HA. (2013) Prehospital High-dose Sublingual Nitroglycerin Rarely Causes Hypotension. Prehospital and disaster medicine, 1-4. PMID: 23962769
The Laboratory of Parasitology, Statens Serum Institut, is now seeking to make diagnostic services available for customers outside Denmark. Doctors - and to some extent private persons - can order analyses directly, and it will also be possible for researchers to outsource diagnostic work to our laboratory.... Read more »
Stensvold CR, Ahmed UN, Andersen LO, & Nielsen HV. (2012) Development and evaluation of a genus-specific, probe-based, internal-process-controlled real-time PCR assay for sensitive and specific detection of Blastocystis spp. Journal of clinical microbiology, 50(6), 1847-51. PMID: 22422846
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