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All posts; Tags Include "Cognitive Neuroscience"

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  • May 21, 2017
  • 10:50 AM
  • 41 views

Predictive Processing: the role of confidence and precision

by Sergio Graziosi in Writing my own user manual - Sergio Graziosi's Blog

This is the second post in a series inspired by Andy Clark’s book “Surfing Uncertainty“. In the previous post I’ve mentioned that an important concept in the Predictive Processing (PP) framework is the role of confidence. Confidence (in a prediction)…Read more ›... Read more »

Kanai R, Komura Y, Shipp S, & Friston K. (2015) Cerebral hierarchies: predictive processing, precision and the pulvinar. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 370(1668). PMID: 25823866  

  • April 3, 2017
  • 10:23 AM
  • 277 views

Financial Scam Vulnerability: Brain Risk Factors

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

It is always frustrating when you hear about a financial scam that has target a vulnerable population like the elderly population.Elderly individuals may be targeted for a variety of reasons. First, they often have financial resources. Second, they may be a generally more trustworthy group increasing risk for falling for a scam. Third, elderly may suffer from some age-related brain changes that impair cognition and judgment.A recent research study suggests specific brain deficits may increase vu........ Read more »

  • March 27, 2017
  • 12:07 PM
  • 296 views

Theory of Mind in Brain Development

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Theory of Mind (ToM) is a concept describing the ability to understand what another person is thinking or feeling.Today in my neuroscience medicine news review I ran across a novel, interesting and important research study targeting brain development in ToM.Normally developing children develop ToM around 4 years of age. In the study published in Nature Communications, a research team at the Max Planck Institute in Germany studied white matter development in 3 to 4 year old children.Using a serie........ Read more »

  • March 20, 2017
  • 11:25 AM
  • 295 views

Opioids, Benzos and Risk for Overdose

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

The evolving epidemic of opioid overdose and overdose deaths is receiving increased public and research attention.Opioids overdoses and overdose deaths are often unintentional or accidental. It has been known that concurrent use of opioids with alcohol or benzodiazepines (i.e. Valium or Xanax) increases risk for overdose toxicity.A recent study published in the British Medical Journal confirmed the association of concurrent benzodiazepine prescription with opioid overdose.This research team exam........ Read more »

  • March 13, 2017
  • 11:38 AM
  • 303 views

Earliest Brain Changes in Alzheimer's Disease

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Amyloid brain plaques are well-known pathological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease. Changes preceding amyloid plaque build up are less well studied and understood. Some of this relates to limitations to current imaging technology.Klementieva and colleagues from Sweden and Spain recently published an important reserach topic in this area.Their studied used a rat model of Alzheimer's disease and imaging techniques that included infrared microspectroscopy and gel electrophoresis.The........ Read more »

Klementieva, O., Willén, K., Martinsson, I., Israelsson, B., Engdahl, A., Cladera, J., Uvdal, P., & Gouras, G. (2017) Pre-plaque conformational changes in Alzheimer’s disease-linked Aβ and APP. Nature Communications, 14726. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms14726  

  • March 5, 2017
  • 05:37 PM
  • 434 views

Do you crave music like you crave a cookie?

by Kiralee Musgrove in Neuroscientist on music

Imagine there is a cookie sitting in front of you. You are hungry. You have been on a diet for months. If you have to look at one more raw, paleo, gluten free snack you are going to scream.... Read more »

  • February 27, 2017
  • 05:29 AM
  • 344 views

Know your brain: Mammillary bodies

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

Where are the mammillary bodies?























The mammillary bodies are part of the diencephalon, which is a collection of structures found between the brainstem and cerebrum. The diencephalon includes the hypothalamus, and the mammillary bodies are found on the inferior surface of the hypothalamus (the side of the hypothalamus that is closer to the brainstem). The mam........ Read more »

Vann SD, & Aggleton JP. (2004) The mammillary bodies: two memory systems in one?. Nature reviews. Neuroscience, 5(1), 35-44. PMID: 14708002  

  • January 23, 2017
  • 10:59 AM
  • 388 views

Processing Speed Cognition in Elderly: Clinical Trial

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Processing speed declines significantly with age and contributes to impairment and disability in old age.There is little known about whether age-related processing speed decline can be slowed with interventionA recent clinical trial by a Japanese group targeted processing speed training in a group of 72 elderly.This study found significant effects for a daily 15 minute processing speed training game over 4 weeks.In contrast to a control group, the intervention group found specific improvement in........ Read more »

  • January 23, 2017
  • 02:26 AM
  • 369 views

Why Do Political Figures Lie So Blatantly?

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Are They Pathological Liars? Narcissists? Psychopaths? “Masterful Manipulators”? 





Trump Spokesman’s Lecture on Media Accuracy Is Peppered With Lies


Nearly all American politicians lie, but few as blatantly as those affiliated with the present administration. How do they do it? Are they lacking a conscience? Do they believe their own lies? Do they start with small falsehoods, stretch the

... Read more »

Garrett, N., Lazzaro, S., Ariely, D., & Sharot, T. (2016) The brain adapts to dishonesty. Nature Neuroscience. DOI: 10.1038/nn.4426  

  • January 15, 2017
  • 03:47 AM
  • 456 views

Neuroscience Can't Heal a Divided Nation

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic




Brain activation during challenges to political vs. non-political beliefs (Figure modified from Kaplan et al., 2016).


Lately I've been despairing about the state of America.




I'm not sure how denying access to affordable health care, opposing scientific facts like global warming and the benefits of vaccines, alienating our allies, banning Muslims, building a wall, endorsing torture, and

... Read more »

  • December 18, 2016
  • 12:41 AM
  • 411 views

On the Interpretation of Neuroscientific Findings

by Justin A. Sattin in The Ghost of Charcot

A review of classic "split brain" research and critique of a new paper regarding "functional" splits in brain function.... Read more »

Sasai, S., Boly, M., Mensen, A., & Tononi, G. (2016) Functional split brain in a driving/listening paradigm. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(50), 14444-14449. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613200113  

  • November 29, 2016
  • 11:24 AM
  • 546 views

Your Brain On God: Reward and Motivation

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

William James authored a seminal book titled The Varieties of Religious Experience: A Study in Human Nature that was published in 1902.In this work, James reviewed the nature of religious experiences and noted a lack of scientific inquiry into this human phenomenon.James would have been extremely interested in a recent scientific inquiry into the religious experience from brain researchers at the University of Utah and Harvard University.In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI........ Read more »

Ferguson MA, Nielsen JA, King JB, Dai L, Giangrasso DM, Holman R, Korenberg JR, & Anderson JS. (2016) Reward, Salience, and Attentional Networks are Activated by Religious Experience in Devout Mormons. Social neuroscience. PMID: 27834117  

  • November 17, 2016
  • 11:00 AM
  • 551 views

Missed Opportunities in Stroke Prevention

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Rates of myocardial infarction and stroke have been declining over the last decade in the U.S. and Europe. However, a recent manuscript suggests there are still significant missed opportunities to prevent stroke.This manuscript presents results of review of electronic primary care records in the United Kingdom.The authors examines a group of over 29,000 subjects with a diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack over a 10 year period.Records were reviewed to assess for compliance with guide........ Read more »

  • November 2, 2016
  • 11:09 AM
  • 490 views

Weight Training Boosts Brain Size and Performance

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Aerobic exercise increases brain blood flow and has demonstrated beneficial effects on cognition.The effects of weight training exercise on the brain is less frequently studied. Hence, we know little about the effect and mechanism of weight training on brain function and performance.A recent study provides some needed insight on this topic.A study by C Suo and colleagues from Australia examined the effects of resistance training and cognitive skills training on brain structure and function.The k........ Read more »

Suo C, Singh MF, Gates N, Wen W, Sachdev P, Brodaty H, Saigal N, Wilson GC, Meiklejohn J, Singh N.... (2016) Therapeutically relevant structural and functional mechanisms triggered by physical and cognitive exercise. Molecular psychiatry, 21(11), 1645. PMID: 27090304  

  • October 24, 2016
  • 11:19 AM
  • 538 views

Exercise After Study Boosts Memory

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

There is significant interest in activities that may boost academic achievement in the classroom.I previously posted on evidence that exercise prior to a learning task improved reading comprehension scores.You can access that post by clicking HERE.Now a study has compared two types of activities after a memorization task in male students.In this study, 60 male students completed a learning task and then were randomized into one of three activities for one hour. The three activities were playing ........ Read more »

  • October 10, 2016
  • 11:54 AM
  • 522 views

Alzheimer's Disease: Atrophy Pattern and Symptoms

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Memory impairment is a key symptom of Alzheimer's dementia common to patients with the condition.However, additional cognitive and behavioral symptoms vary between patients with a clinical and pathological diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.A key area of research is focused on understanding factors that contribute to symptom variability in Alzheimer's disease.A team of researchers from Singapore and Harvard Medical School recently published an important study on this topic.They analyzed structural........ Read more »

Zhang X, Mormino EC, Sun N, Sperling RA, Sabuncu MR, Yeo BT, & Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. (2016) Bayesian model reveals latent atrophy factors with dissociable cognitive trajectories in Alzheimer's disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. PMID: 27702899  

  • October 3, 2016
  • 10:56 AM
  • 556 views

Robin Williams and Lewy Body Disease

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

In a post last week, I highlighted a recent study examining clinical issues in the diagnosis of Lewy body dementia (LBD).This study examined differentiating clinical and neuropsychological factors between LBD, Alzheimer's dementia and Parkinson's disease.You can access this post by clicking HERE.This topic received significant attention following the description of comedian Robin Williams' last years by his wife in the journal Neurology.Robin Williams suffered from LBD and like many, his diagnos........ Read more »

Williams SS. (2016) The terrorist inside my husband's brain. Neurology, 87(13), 1308-1311. info:/

  • September 29, 2016
  • 11:25 PM
  • 544 views

Locating social memories in the brain

by adam phillips in It Ain't Magic

Scientists have identified that social memories are stored in the vetral CA1 region of the brain (in mice). After meeting a mouse and forgetting it, the memories can be reactivated optogenetically, indicating that they exist, but cannot be retrieved after time passes... Read more »

Okuyama, T., Kitamura, T., Roy, D., Itohara, S., & Tonegawa, S. (2016) Ventral CA1 neurons store social memory. Science, 353(6307), 1536-1541. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf7003  

  • September 28, 2016
  • 11:10 AM
  • 576 views

Lewy Body Versus Alzheimer's Dementias and Parkinson's

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

One clinical challenge is making an accurate diagnosis in patients with dementia.Alzheimer's disease is typically the predominant diagnosis in dementia. However a significant number of patients will present with dementia due to Lewy Body disease, Parkinson's dementia,  frontotemporal dementia or vascular dementia.A recent study helps clinicians to distinguish Lewy Body  from Alzheimer's dementia and Parkinson's disease.Douglas Scharre and collegues from Ohio State University conducted ........ Read more »

Scharre, D., Chang, S., Nagaraja, H., Park, A., Adeli, A., Agrawal, P., Kloos, A., Kegelmeyer, D., Linder, S., Fritz, N.... (2016) Paired Studies Comparing Clinical Profiles of Lewy Body Dementia with Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Diseases. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 1-10. DOI: 10.3233/JAD-160384  

  • September 21, 2016
  • 11:46 AM
  • 496 views

Brain Imaging: UK Biobank Epidemiology Study

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

I wanted to alert Brain Posts readers to a very important ongoing study out of the United Kingdom.The UK Biobank prospective epidemiological study is a study designed to identify imaging markers for a wide variety of diseases. Additionally, a goal of the study is to better understand disease mechanisms.Here is what is being collected on 100,000 healthy participants who will be tracked over decades:Brain structural and functional imaging (fMRI)Brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)Neuropsychologica........ Read more »

Miller KL, Alfaro-Almagro F, Bangerter NK, Thomas DL, Yacoub E, Xu J, Bartsch AJ, Jbabdi S, Sotiropoulos SN, Andersson JL.... (2016) Multimodal population brain imaging in the UK Biobank prospective epidemiological study. Nature neuroscience. PMID: 27643430  

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