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  • May 21, 2017
  • 10:50 AM
  • 36 views

Predictive Processing: the role of confidence and precision

by Sergio Graziosi in Writing my own user manual - Sergio Graziosi's Blog

This is the second post in a series inspired by Andy Clark’s book “Surfing Uncertainty“. In the previous post I’ve mentioned that an important concept in the Predictive Processing (PP) framework is the role of confidence. Confidence (in a prediction)…Read more ›... Read more »

Kanai R, Komura Y, Shipp S, & Friston K. (2015) Cerebral hierarchies: predictive processing, precision and the pulvinar. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 370(1668). PMID: 25823866  

  • May 17, 2017
  • 07:02 AM
  • 68 views

Those who only kill children are neuro-psychologically different from other murderers

by Doug Keene in The Jury Room

Of course it isn’t a surprise that they are gravely disturbed, but who knew it was neuropsychological?  This is an article from researchers at Northwestern University and looks very specifically at similarities and differences in the neuropsychological test scores of those who killed only children and those who killed some adults as well as children. […]... Read more »

Azores-Gococo, N., Brook, M., Teralandur, S., & Hanlon, R. (2017) Killing A Child. Criminal Justice and Behavior., 2147483647. DOI: 10.1177/0093854817699437  

  • May 6, 2017
  • 01:04 PM
  • 161 views

Partisan Review: “Surfing Uncertainty”, by Andy Clark.

by Sergio Graziosi in Writing my own user manual - Sergio Graziosi's Blog

Sometimes it happens that reading a book ignites a seemingly unstoppable whirlpool of ideas. The book in question is “Surfing Uncertainty: Prediction, Action, and the Embodied Mind” by Andy Clark. Why is this a partisan review? Because Clark himself had…Read more ›... Read more »

  • May 5, 2017
  • 07:05 AM
  • 57 views

Lies, lies and more lies: An update on deception research 

by Doug Keene in The Jury Room

All this week, we have focused on research about lying but there are multiple other articles we want to share with you that will not require a full post. Think of this post as an update on deception that will aid you in preparation for court (and life in general). Small, self-serving lies change our […]... Read more »

Garrett N, Lazzaro SC, Ariely D, & Sharot T. (2016) The brain adapts to dishonesty. Nature Neuroscience, 19(12), 1727-1732. PMID: 27775721  

  • May 3, 2017
  • 07:02 AM
  • 181 views

Artful Paltering: One more way people lie (especially in  negotiations!)

by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room

Back in 2010, we posted on an article called Artful Dodging that talked about how politicians in particular, answer the question they prefer to answer rather than the question you asked. We talked about responding to that strategy in voir dire. Now, we have another article from the same group of researchers and this one […]... Read more »

Rogers T, Zeckhauser R, Gino F, Norton MI, & Schweitzer ME. (2017) Artful paltering: The risks and rewards of using truthful statements to mislead others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 112(3), 456-473. PMID: 27936834  

  • May 1, 2017
  • 11:35 AM
  • 167 views

The illusion of truth (which is why you should never  repeat fake news)

by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room

It’s been all about “fake news” for a while now and here’s a study telling us to just stop talking about it. Well, sort of. What it actually says is even when we have knowledge to the contrary, if we hear something repeated enough—we come to believe it. Hence, our recommendation that we need to […]... Read more »

Fazio LK, Brashier NM, Payne BK, & Marsh EJ. (2015) Knowledge does not protect against illusory truth. Journal of Experimental Psychology. General, 144(5), 993-1002. PMID: 26301795  

  • April 15, 2017
  • 04:12 PM
  • 321 views

Perspectives…

by Sergio Graziosi in Writing my own user manual - Sergio Graziosi's Blog

In the past few months I’ve spent some time looking for trouble on Twitter. I’ve found some (mild and polite), which translated into plenty food for thought, and eventually allowed me to put some order in my thoughts. The matter…Read more ›... Read more »

Kahneman, D. (2011) Thinking, Fast and Slow. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. info:other/978-0374275631

  • April 7, 2017
  • 07:02 AM
  • 64 views

Which science is most “certain” according to the American public? 

by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room

When litigation cases rely on science or highly technical information, it is critical to help jurors understand the information underlying the case at a level that makes sense to them. If they do not understand your “science”, they will simply guess which party to vote for or “follow the crowd”. Here’s an example of what […]... Read more »

Broomell, S., & Kane, P. (2017) Public perception and communication of scientific uncertainty. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 146(2), 286-304. DOI: 10.1037/xge0000260  

  • April 5, 2017
  • 07:02 AM
  • 276 views

Your Black client is much more likely to be wrongfully convicted

by Doug Keene in The Jury Room

Those of us who’ve been around for a while have heard this repeatedly. But, lest you think times are changing, here’s some sobering data from a March, 2017 report co-edited by a Michigan State University College of Law Professor. From the beginning, this is a disturbing report. Here’s how it starts: African-Americans are only 13% […]... Read more »

Samuel R. Gross, Maurice Possley, & Klara Stephens. (2017) Race and Wrongful Convictions in the United States. . UC Irvine: National Registry of Exonerations. . info:/

  • March 25, 2017
  • 01:06 PM
  • 235 views

Native multilinguals

by Madalena Cruz-Ferreira in Being Multilingual

P { margin-bottom: 0.08in; } Some of my language teaching students sometimes express out loud their heartfelt desire to become native speakers. I was quite baffled the first time I heard this: we’re all native speakers, surely, and we can’t become natives, if we take the word “native” to mean what I supposed it is meant to mean, ‘from birth’. But does it? It turned out that my students’ previous teacher training had included the mantra that “native” means ‘flawless’ in this collocation, and flawless, whatever we take this word to mean, is certainly something that all of us can at least aspire to become. This latter meaning of the word “native” has in fact been made quite explicit in the literature about “second” (or “foreign”) languages – with my profuse apologies for the scare quotes that will crop up all over this post: I’ve no idea what the scared words might mean, in this literature. This meaning explains, for example, why some of us think it a worthwhile endeavour to compare school language learners to “native speakers”, for purposes of language quality assessment. But there is a snag: if learning languages from birth entails flawless use of those languages, how come multilinguals across the board, including simultaneous multilinguals who learn more than one language from Day One, go on being compared to “native speakers”? The thing is that “native speaker” has yet a third meaning, ‘monolingual’, this time a covert one, which nevertheless heeds the overt, systematic practice of comparing any multilinguals to monolinguals. This meaning explains, for example, the virtual absence of acknowledgement that multilinguals can be “native” users of their languages. If we accept that multilingual proficiency should be assessed through comparison with “native” proficiency, then we’re saying that multilinguals and natives are two distinct kinds of language users, since we can’t compare a thing to itself.But there is another snag. If multilinguals aren’t native users of their languages, then they must be “non-native”, by the logic of the assumedly useful labels which populate research on language uses. However, they aren’t, because multilinguals get compared to non-natives, too. In addition, simultaneous multilinguals can’t be “non-native”, if their languages are there for them from Day One, which is one of the meanings of “native”. Multilinguals, in sum, appear to inhabit a Linguistic No Man’s Land.“Day One”, unfortunately, may not be what clinches the issue either. If the language(s) in which we’re brought up from birth happen to be imported languages, then those languages aren’t “ours”. And if we learn a new language in early childhood, though not exactly from Day One, how many days should we count to count as a native user of it? Can I, for example, claim French as native language, having lived with it from just before age 3? Or was I then already way past my native learning prime, as I must have been when I learned my other languages several years later? If you’re interested in the mysteries of “critical periods” which snipe at “native” language learning abilities, Carmen Muñoz and David Singleton’s state of the art discussion, A critical review of age-related research on L2 ultimate attainment, is a must-read. Scare-quoted terminological acrobatics about multilingualism would be hilarious, of course, if it didn’t appear in “serious” research, thereby proving that we’ve no idea what we’re talking about. Have a look in my article First language acquisition and teaching, to see what I mean. The muddle got compounded when researchers developed a preference for labelling the languages of a multilingual by means of numbers, possibly on the belief that identifying things by numbers makes them look scientifically unquestionable. There’s always some “L1” lurking in there somewhere, which means that there must be rankings of L2, ... Ln, where the numbers apparently serve the purpose of showing that languages either politely follow one another or should do so. But what do these numbers mean when, say, simultaneous multilinguals learn one or more new languages in school? Not much, it seems, because we prefer to stick to labels rather than acknowledge their undefinable uselessness. Since “L1” represents an inherently singular concept (in more than one sense of “singular”), the logic of cardinal and ordinal numbering requires that L1 = “first language”, whereby everyone must have a single “first” language, endowed with rights of primogeniture associated with other firstborns. If there’s no single chronological first language, no problem: we just assign one to children, for reasons of administrative expediency, and call it their “mother tongue”. Finally, by the logic that first = “best”, we end up talking about “dominant” and “balanced” languages, and about all the other hopeless labels which do no more than betray our hopeless beliefs that multilinguals are, in fact, funny monolinguals. This state of affairs may well explain why multilingualism goes on being blamed for anything that deviates from monolingualism, to which I’ll return some other day. Meanwhile, the next post, a guest post, goes back to where this post started, to report vivid encounters with “nativeness” from a language teacher who’s also had plenty of reasons to wonder about the meaning of this word.... Read more »

  • March 25, 2017
  • 12:40 PM
  • 247 views

Sign-speech multilinguals

by Madalena Cruz-Ferreira in Being Multilingual

P { margin-bottom: 0.08in; } Opinions and decisions about multilingualism involving sign languages suffer from the same resilient fantasies which have plagued multilingualism in general over the past 100 years or so. With sign languages, however, there’s the aggravating factor that fantasies about them join the chorus. Only the other week, for example, I had a couple of (speech-speech) multilingual friends wonder why all the fuss about sign languages among linguists like me, since these languages are but a set of universal gestural primitives, like rubbing your tummy to indicate you’re hungry, as they put it. Aren’t they?, they nevertheless asked at the end of their reasoning. No, I replied. This would be roughly equivalent to saying that spoken languages are but a set of universal groany primitives to indicate your mood, as I put it. I took this chance to dispel their other illusion, that sign languages are straightforward fingerspelling systems, which draws on the interesting assumption that all signers must be literate. Many sign languages do include fingerspelling components, but the fact that, say, BSL (British Sign Language) and ASL (American Sign Language) use two-handed and one-handed spelling, respectively, for the same printed language, should help reassess the presumed straightforwardness of fingerspelling. In addition, BSL and ASL are as mutually unintelligible as other sign languages around the world. My friends are well educated, cosmopolitan professionals. Their take reflects the overarching myth that sign languages really aren’t languages at all, which goes on shaping policies devised by other professionals, those who have been empowered to deal with language education and who therefore aren’t in the habit of asking questions at the end of their reasonings. In a book chapter discussing The British Sign Language community up to the early 1990s, Paddy Ladd gives a distressing review of the ignorance and associated prejudice which, among other rulings, sanctioned physical violence to ‘cure’ deaf children of their signing ‘compulsion’. Just like, as I reported elsewhere, multilingualism came to be beaten out of hearing schoolchildren, the hands of deaf schoolchildren were tied behind their backs in order to force them to use spoken language. Just like, as I also reported elsewhere, multilingualism came to be medicalised, the language of deaf people was “pathologised” (Ladd’s word). Small wonder, then, that sign-speech multilinguals came to be viewed as doubly ‘handicapped’. When sign languages finally became legitimised, as it were, as objects of linguistic enquiry, sign multilingualism turned out, unsurprisingly, to match speech multilingualism. It comes complete with mixes, as David Quinto-Pozos reports for LSM (Lengua de Señas Mexicana) and ASL in Sign language contact and interference, for example, and with a lingua franca, International Sign, which Anja Hiddinga and Onno Crasborn discuss in Signed languages and globalization. But sign multilingualism remained the business of signers, so hearing communities needn’t bother with the eccentricities of deaf communities. Dealing with sign-speech multilingualism, however, appears to invite regression to hand-tied Fantasy Land: sign languages may be languages after all, but they are less so than spoken ones and should therefore not take priority in (so-called) multilingual education. It may help to understand that we’re talking about difference here, not winner-takes-it-all competition of gradable merits. It is as useful to compare the contexts of use of distinct linguistic modes as it’s useful to compare multilinguals and monolinguals. Insisting on doing so fails to recognise one of the many paradoxes reflecting our perennial difficulty in defining what languages are: do we want to say that speech beats sign, hands down, because we’re persuaded that auditory resources rank higher than visual ones in linguistic sophistication? Or should we rank those resources the other way around, because we believe that spoken languages are subsidiary to spelt ones? Language is as independent of the modes we’ve found to represent it – whether natural, sense-bound ones like sight, hearing, touch, or artificial ones like print – as music is independent of the instruments (our voice included) through which we produce it. What’s more, our senses seldom serve us to the exclusion of other senses. Manual gestures, for example, are intrinsic to spoken interaction, where attention to both visual and sound clues necessarily assists (de)coding. There’s even evidence that adequate gesturing enhances learning, as Martha W. Alibali and colleagues showed for a speech-based maths class in Students learn more when their teacher has learned to gesture effectively. In this sense, speakers and signers alike are multimodal users of language, and so are all of us, speakers or signers, who are literate. There may be some overlap between gestural uses in spoken and signed interaction, as Trevor Johnston argued for pointing gestures in Towards a comparative semiotics of pointing actions in signed and spoken languages, but the fundamental issue is that signs and speech belong to two different linguistic modes, each with their rules, standards and practices. Precisely for this reason, sign-speech multilinguals can avail themselves of means of linguistic expression which monomodal interaction lacks, in that “distinct modalities allow for simultaneous production of two languages”, as Karen Emmorey and colleagues discuss in Bimodal bilingualism. This means that sign-speech multilinguals, like any language users, must draw on the whole of their linguistic resources in order to be able to develop as human beings. The Position Statement on Early Cognitive and Language Development and Education of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Children, adopted by the NAD (National Association of the Deaf, USA) in June this year, makes for as engrossing reading as Paddy Ladd’s chapter – with many thanks to Beppie van den Bogaerde, who brought this publication to my attention on Twitter, @HU_DeafStudies. The document examines the relationship between sign, speech and print modes, debunking the usual myths about minority languages causing delayed development of mainstream languages (why never the other way around, one wonders?), about the primacy of spoken languages over signed ones, about reading abilities presupposing “... Read more »

Alibali, M., Young, A., Crooks, N., Yeo, A., Wolfgram, M., Ledesma, I., Nathan, M., Breckinridge Church, R., & Knuth, E. (2013) Students learn more when their teacher has learned to gesture effectively. Gesture, 13(2), 210-233. DOI: 10.1075/gest.13.2.05ali  

  • March 20, 2017
  • 07:02 AM
  • 272 views

Simple Jury Persuasion: The SPOT (Spontaneous Preference  for Own Theories) effect 

by Doug Keene in The Jury Room

It’s been a while since we’ve had a new cognitive bias to share with you. Previously we’ve blogged on many different biases and here are a handful of those posts. Today’s research paper combines three biases—two of which we’ve blogged about before: the better-than-average effect, confirmation bias and also, the endowment effect. The endowment effect […]... Read more »

Gregg AP, Mahadevan N, & Sedikides C. (2017) The SPOT effect: People spontaneously prefer their own theories. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70(6), 996-1010. PMID: 26836058  

  • March 19, 2017
  • 11:14 PM
  • 270 views

3 Study Habits of Successful Students in College

by Winston Sieck in Thinker Academy

Can’t wait to break out of high school and dash off to college? College is a lot of fun. Late nights, parties, sporting events with thousands of people, on-campus concerts and thousands of potential new friends combine to make college some of the best years of a person’s life. Yet, in the midst of all […]
Check out 3 Study Habits of Successful Students in College, an original post on Thinker Academy.
... Read more »

  • March 13, 2017
  • 07:02 AM
  • 276 views

Identifying deception when the witness wears a face-covering veil

by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room

In 2014, we wrote about research investigating how people felt when a witness wore a veil such as some forms of a hijab or a niqab. Here were some of the findings we described in that research. We’ve written a number of times about bias against Muslims. But here’s a nice article with an easy […]... Read more »

Leach AM, Ammar N, England DN, Remigio LM, Kleinberg B, & Verschuere BJ. (2016) Less is more? Detecting lies in veiled witnesses. Law and Human Behavior, 40(4), 401-10. PMID: 27348716  

  • March 10, 2017
  • 07:02 AM
  • 237 views

Facts [still] don’t matter: the 2017 edition 

by Doug Keene in The Jury Room

When we began this blog in 2009, the reality that facts don’t matter was one of the first posts we wrote. We wrote again about this reality back in 2011. And we’ve written about it several times since then so…here we go again! In this new era of fake news and fake news allegations, we’ve […]... Read more »

Swire, B., Berinsky, A., Lewandowsky, S., & Ecker, U. (2017) Processing political misinformation: comprehending the Trump phenomenon. Royal Society Open Science, 4(3), 160802. DOI: 10.1098/rsos.160802  

  • March 8, 2017
  • 07:02 AM
  • 293 views

A secret weapon for voir dire: Smart people are more curious

by Rita Handrich in The Jury Room

Back in October of 2016, we wrote about a paper by the Cultural Cognition Project on assessing “scientific curiosity”. Here is some of what we said then about what Kahan and his colleagues found by measuring scientific curiosity: “What they found was that participants who scored higher on the curiosity scale were more likely to […]... Read more »

  • March 1, 2017
  • 07:02 AM
  • 241 views

So maybe it doesn’t pay to be beautiful  

by Doug Keene in The Jury Room

Or at least, maybe there is no “ugliness penalty” if you are not beautiful. We’ve written a number of times here about the many benefits given to those who are seen as beautiful or attractive. This paper debunks the stereotype and says that salary goes beyond appearance and individual differences matter too. The researchers used […]... Read more »

Kanazawa, S., & Still, MC. (2017) Is there really a beauty premium or an ugliness penalty on earnings?. Journal of Business and Psychology. info:/

  • February 27, 2017
  • 05:29 AM
  • 343 views

Know your brain: Mammillary bodies

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

Where are the mammillary bodies?























The mammillary bodies are part of the diencephalon, which is a collection of structures found between the brainstem and cerebrum. The diencephalon includes the hypothalamus, and the mammillary bodies are found on the inferior surface of the hypothalamus (the side of the hypothalamus that is closer to the brainstem). The mammillary bodies are a paired structure, meaning there are two mammillary bodies---one on either side of the midline of the brain. They get their name because they were thought by early anatomists to have a breast-like shape. The mammillary bodies themselves are sometimes each divided into two nuclei, the lateral and medial mammillary nuclei. The medial mammillary nucleus is the much larger of the two, and is often subdivided into several subregions.  What are the mammillary bodies and what do they do?The mammillary bodies are best known for their role in memory, although in the last couple of decades the mammillary bodies have started to be recognized as being involved in other functions like maintaining a sense of direction. The role of the mammillary bodies in memory has been acknowledged since the late 1800s, when mammillary body atrophy was observed in Korsakov's syndrome---a disorder characterized by amnesia and usually linked to a thiamine deficiency. Since then a number of findings---anatomical, clinical, and experimental---have supported and expanded upon a mnemonic role for the mammillary bodies.The mammillary bodies are directly connected to three other brain regions: the hippocampus via the fornix, thalamus (primarily the anterior thalamic nuclei) via the mammillothalamic tract, and the tegmental nuclei of the midbrain via the mammillary peduncle and mammillotegmental tract. Two of the three connections are thought to primarily carry information in one direction: the hippocampal connections carry information from the hippocampus to the mammillary bodies and the thalamic connections carry information from the mammillary bodies to the thalamus (the tegmental connections are reciprocal). These connections earned the mammillary bodies the reputation of being relay nuclei that pass information from the hippocampus on to the anterior thalamic nuclei to aid in memory consolidation. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that damage to pathways that connect the mammillary bodies to the hippocampus or thalamus is associated with deficits in consolidating new memories. Others argue, however, that the mammillary bodies act as more than a simple relay, making independent contributions to memory consolidation. Both perspectives emphasize a role for the mammillary bodies in memory but differ as to the specifics of that role.Further supporting a role for the mammillary bodies in memory, there is evidence from humans that suggests damage to the mammillary bodies is associated with memory deficits. Several cases of brain damage involving the mammillary bodies as well as cases of tumor-related damage to the area of the mammillary bodies suggests that damage to the mammillary bodies is linked to anterograde amnesia. Indeed, mammillary body dysfunction has been identified as a major factor in diencephalic amnesia, a type of amnesia that originates in the diencephalon (Korsakoff's syndrome, an amnesia that is seen primarily in long-term alcoholics, is one type of diencephalic amnesia).Experimental evidence from animal studies also underscores the importance of the mammillary bodies in memory. Studies with rodents and monkeys have found deficits in spatial memory to occur after damage to the mammillary bodies or the mammillothalamic tract. In addition to involvement in memory functions, there are cells in the mammillary bodies that are activated only when an animal's head is facing in a particular direction. These cells are thought to be involved in navigation and may act somewhat like a compass in creating a sense of direction.Vann SD, & Aggleton JP (2004). The mammillary bodies: two memory systems in one? Nature reviews. Neuroscience, 5 (1), 35-44 PMID: 14708002... Read more »

Vann SD, & Aggleton JP. (2004) The mammillary bodies: two memory systems in one?. Nature reviews. Neuroscience, 5(1), 35-44. PMID: 14708002  

  • February 19, 2017
  • 01:01 PM
  • 395 views

Using Discourse Analysis to Assess Cognitive Decline

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Figure from Gauthier et al. (2005).

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and other dementias are progressive neurodegenerative conditions that unfold over time. Subtle symptoms such as forgetfulness and word finding problems may progress to mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and then escalate to full-blown dementia. Recent efforts to classify prodromal states have included automated analysis of spontaneous... Read more »

Fraser, K., Meltzer, J., & Rudzicz, F. (2015) Linguistic Features Identify Alzheimer’s Disease in Narrative Speech. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 49(2), 407-422. DOI: 10.3233/JAD-150520  

Thomas, C., Keselj, V., Cercone, N., Rockwood, K., . (2005) Automatic detection and rating of dementia of Alzheimer type through lexical analysis of spontaneous speech. IEEE International Conference, 1569-1574. info:/10.1109/ICMA.2005.1626789

  • February 17, 2017
  • 07:01 AM
  • 343 views

Why does music training increase intelligence?

by Richard Kunert in Brain's Idea

We know that music training causes intelligence to increase, but why? In this post I 1) propose a new theory, and 2) falsify it immediately. Given that this particular combination of activities is unpublishable in any academic journal, I invite you to read the whole story here (in under 500 words). 1) Proposing the ISAML Incredible but […]... Read more »

Jones, M., & Boltz, M. (1989) Dynamic attending and responses to time. Psychological Review, 96(3), 459-491. DOI: 10.1037//0033-295X.96.3.459  

Kunert R, & Jongman SR. (2017) Entrainment to an auditory signal: Is attention involved?. Journal of experimental psychology. General, 146(1), 77-88. PMID: 28054814  

Glenn Schellenberg, E. (2004) Music Lessons Enhance IQ. Psychological Science, 15(8), 511-514. DOI: 10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00711.x  

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