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All posts; Tags Include "Developmental Neuroscience"

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  • February 28, 2017
  • 10:43 AM
  • 164 views

Outcome in Early Education Interventions (Educare)

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Despite centuries of experience in education, the best time to start formal education is still under debate. Is five years of age too old? Is three years of age too early?One issue with early education interventions is the potential for catch-up in children starting school later. In other words, early gains with younger children may evaporate overtime.One recent research study examines effectiveness of a child development intervention known as Educare. Educare seeks to reduce the achievement gap........ Read more »

Yazejian, N., Bryant, D., Hans, S., Horm, D., St. Clair, L., File, N., & Burchinal, M. (2017) Child and Parenting Outcomes After 1 Year of Educare. Child Development. DOI: 10.1111/cdev.12688  

  • November 21, 2016
  • 11:10 AM
  • 403 views

Benefits of Physical Activity in Parkison's Disease

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegerative disorder estimated to affect 7 to 10 million individual worldwide.The primary mechanism for Parkinson's disease is a reduction in the neurotransmitter dopamine in the midbrain region of the substantia nigra highlighted in red in the figure.PD impairs motor and cognitive functions and leads to significant decline in psychosocial functioning.Drugs for PD can be effective in reversing and slowing the progression of the illness. However, resp........ Read more »

Lauzé M, Daneault JF, & Duval C. (2016) The Effects of Physical Activity in Parkinson's Disease: A Review. Journal of Parkinson's disease, 6(4), 685-698. PMID: 27567884  

  • August 18, 2016
  • 08:54 AM
  • 687 views

Wait, let me google it. On the fall (and rise?) of human memory.

by gdw in FictionalFieldwork

Ruins of a memory palace Once upon a time, there were no computers. And yet, even in the ancient days when writing was not widespread, people told gigantic tales or recited poems of epic proportions. Often more than once. Admittedly, they probably changed a bit along the way, but still the plot remained intact. How […]... Read more »

  • July 7, 2016
  • 09:09 AM
  • 782 views

Are animals (and AI’s) people too?

by gdw in FictionalFieldwork

Charles gets up and balances on his short legs. During the brief ungainly walk to the dais, he fights the urge to scratch his arms. The vest that has been tailor-made for him itches. But it will help focus the committee on his purpose, focus on him as a person. He squats on the low […]... Read more »

Perring C. (1997) Degrees of personhood. The Journal of medicine and philosophy, 22(2), 173-97. PMID: 9186928  

Windrem MS, Schanz SJ, Morrow C, Munir J, Chandler-Militello D, Wang S, & Goldman SA. (2014) A competitive advantage by neonatally engrafted human glial progenitors yields mice whose brains are chimeric for human glia. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 34(48), 16153-61. PMID: 25429155  

  • March 16, 2016
  • 09:59 AM
  • 741 views

An open letter to all science lovers who want to defend science ... please don't.

by EE Giorgi in CHIMERAS

Last week I had an animated discussion on Facebook over an older post in which I describe some literature I dug out on possible (underline “possible”!) correlations with autism. True, my post is highly incomplete, but it was meant as a discussion starter to point at things that scientists have been looking at in an attempt to unravel what feels like a rise in autism. Is autism the new childhood plague of our modern society or has it always been around and we just became more aware of it? And........ Read more »

Kushak RI, Buie TM, Murray KF, Newburg DS, Chen C, Nestoridi E, & Winter HS. (2016) Evaluation of Intestinal Function in Children with Autism and Gastrointestinal Symptoms. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition. PMID: 26913756  

Heijtz, R., Wang, S., Anuar, F., Qian, Y., Bjorkholm, B., Samuelsson, A., Hibberd, M., Forssberg, H., & Pettersson, S. (2011) Normal gut microbiota modulates brain development and behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(7), 3047-3052. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1010529108  

Mulle, J., Sharp, W., & Cubells, J. (2013) The Gut Microbiome: A New Frontier in Autism Research. Current Psychiatry Reports, 15(2). DOI: 10.1007/s11920-012-0337-0  

  • March 6, 2016
  • 11:51 PM
  • 764 views

From evolutionary morphology to Godzilla

by adam phillips in It Ain't Magic

I recently spoke with Chief Scientist Shigeru Kuratani about evolutionary morphology, sci-fi monsters, the genius of Alien, and more.... Read more »

Sugahara, F., Pascual-Anaya, J., Oisi, Y., Kuraku, S., Aota, S., Adachi, N., Takagi, W., Hirai, T., Sato, N., Murakami, Y.... (2016) Evidence from cyclostomes for complex regionalization of the ancestral vertebrate brain. Nature, 531(7592), 97-100. DOI: 10.1038/nature16518  

  • January 20, 2016
  • 06:55 AM
  • 968 views

Pump Up Your Brain

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

Exercising makes you smarter! Preadolescents who begin exercising score better on a cognitive assessment not unlike an IQ test. They also perform better on a math test, even though no additional math instruction was given. But to maximize the increase in neural plasticity, you have to exercise several times a week for months. The weirdest part – different types of exercise alter different neurotrophins, so to be your smartest, you need to do aerobic training and resistance training. ... Read more »

  • November 4, 2015
  • 01:50 PM
  • 799 views

Brain Imaging in Diagnosis of Lewy Body Dementia

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Brain image highlighting right insula implicated in DLBRecent information has emerged concerning the suicide death of the comedian/actor Robin Williams.Autopsy results have demonstrated that Robin Williams suffered from dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).This public case demonstrates the difficulty in making a correct diagnosis of DLB prior to the findings at autopsy.In a previous post I reported on a screening tool for clinicians that appears to have some promise for screening for high-risk DLB pa........ Read more »

  • October 30, 2015
  • 11:06 AM
  • 987 views

Wii Fit Games for Children with Coordination Problems

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Among the types of development problems of childhood is developmental coordination disorder or DCD.In DCD, children show delay and subnormal performance in coordinated motor skills.This may be noted as a general tendency of clumsiness with difficulties in activities such as catching a ball, using scissors, handwriting or riding a bike.Computer games such as the Nintendo Wii platform provide a method to improve a variety of motor and coordination skills in a fun environment.A South African team r........ Read more »

  • August 31, 2015
  • 04:31 AM
  • 880 views

Cats on Treadmills (and the plasticity of biological motion perception)

by The Neurocritic in The Neurocritic

Cats on a treadmill. From Treadmill Kittens.It's been an eventful week. The 10th Anniversary of Hurricane Katrina. The 10th Anniversary of Optogenetics (with commentary from the neuroscience community and from the inventors). The Reproducibility Project's efforts to replicate 100 studies in cognitive and social psychology (published in Science). And the passing of the great writer and neurologist, Oliver Sacks. Oh, and Wes Craven just died too...I'm not blogging about any of these events. Many ........ Read more »

  • August 25, 2015
  • 03:13 PM
  • 912 views

Microbes and the mind: Who's pulling the strings?

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

There are many examples throughout nature of microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, and parasites influencing the neurobiology and behavior of their hosts. For example, the rabies virus enters the nervous system almost immediately after a bite or scratch and travels to the brain, where it influences neural activity to make aggressive behavior more likely. This, of course, is beneficial for the virus as it increases the probability its infected host will make contact with another susceptible host........ Read more »

  • July 8, 2015
  • 12:54 PM
  • 733 views

Brain Imaging and Alzheimer's Disease Prediction

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Enhanced early detection of risk for Alzheimer's dementia and other forms of dementia is key to prevention and early intervention.Brain imaging holds promise as a pre-clinical disease risk assessment tool in Alzeimer's dementia.Dementia risk has been linked to several brain imaging abnormalities found with magnetic resonance imaging. These abnormalities have included atrophy of the brain hippocampus, medial temporal lobe as well as white matter hyperintensities.A recent study from France examine........ Read more »

  • May 14, 2015
  • 10:31 AM
  • 712 views

Male Depression Risk Via Childhood Conduct Disorder

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Conduct disorder represents an important childhood-onset condition that commonly persists into adulthood.Adult antisocial personality disorder and substance abuse are known risks associated with conduct disorder.A recent study by Kenneth Kendler and Charles Gardner identified male conduct disorder as a risk factor for adult major depression.Their study using the Virginia Twin Registry examined 20 developmental risk factors in male and female twins for presence of recent adult major depression.A ........ Read more »

  • April 13, 2015
  • 10:22 AM
  • 698 views

Treating Insomnia in Children with ADHD

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Insomnia commonly complicates the clinical presentation and treatment in children with ADHD.Stimulant therapy may provide significant relief for daytime attention and hyperactivity symptoms. However, stimulants do not appear to help with comorbid insomnia. In fact, stimulant therapy may cause more problems with insomnia in ADHD.Behavioral treatments are known to be effective in children without ADHD. Now we have a recently published study showing the effectiveness of behavioral treatment of inso........ Read more »

  • April 7, 2015
  • 11:57 AM
  • 832 views

ADHD and Brain White Matter Deficits

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Structural brain imaging studies in ADHD fail to find consistent differences from non-ADHD populations.However, there is increasing evidence linking ADHD to changes in brain white matter function.An example of these findings is a recent study from China examining white matter in children with ADHD.ADHD is typically subgrouped into inattention (ADHD-I), hyperactivity ADHD-H or combined categories (ADHD-C). In the recent Chinese study, inattention and combined subgroups of children were compa........ Read more »

  • March 30, 2015
  • 11:25 AM
  • 776 views

One Parent,Two Parents and Child Well-Being

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

The structure of the family in the United States and other countries is changing. This change has occurred over a relatively brief period of time. Data noted in the study I am reviewing today shows that between 1970 and 2013 in the U.S.:Percentage of children living with two parents dropped 24%Percentage of children living with a single mother increased to 23.7%Percentage of children living with a single father quadrupled to 4.1%Percentage of children living with a grandparent doubled to 6......... Read more »

  • March 26, 2015
  • 11:17 AM
  • 675 views

Parenting Moderates Childhood Brain Stress Response

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Child brain development benefits from a positive parenting style and environment.The mechanism for this positive effect is unclear but moderation of the stress response in the growing child is an area of research interest.Haroon Sheikh and colleagues from the University of Ontario in Canada recently published results on a study of parenting and brain development in children.In their study, a cohort of 46 six year old girls underwent brain imaging using a technique known as diffusion tensor imagi........ Read more »

  • March 25, 2015
  • 10:37 AM
  • 668 views

Parental Education As Risk Factor For Eating Disorders

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Genetic and environmental risk factors contribute to the risk for anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders.Known risk factors for anorexia nervosa include female gender, young age, family member with anorexia nervosa, weight loss, and participation in weight sensitive sports or activities, i.e. gymnastics, dancing.There has also been evidence that anorexia nervosa is more common in higher socioeconomic classes. This finding has made it one of the few brain disorders more common with this cate........ Read more »

  • March 23, 2015
  • 11:01 AM
  • 730 views

Smoking in Pregnancy and Child Brain Development

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Smoking during pregnancy produces significant and diverse effects on prenatal development.These adverse effects include dysfunction in prenatal and early childhood brain development.Hanan El Marroun and colleagues from the Netherlands recently published an important childhood brain imaging study of smoking during pregnancy.One hundred and thirteen children exposed to tobacco during pregnancy were compared to a control group of unexposed children.Both groups of children between 6 and 8 years of a........ Read more »

El Marroun H, Schmidt MN, Franken IH, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, van der Lugt A, Verhulst FC, Tiemeier H, & White T. (2014) Prenatal tobacco exposure and brain morphology: a prospective study in young children. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 39(4), 792-800. PMID: 24096296  

  • January 20, 2015
  • 10:34 AM
  • 969 views

Perspective-Tracking Brain Response Could Help Identify Children with Autism

by amikulak in Daily Observations

Using brain imaging to examine neural activity associated with our ability to distinguish the self from others may offer scientists a relatively accurate tool to identify children with autism spectrum […]... Read more »

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