It’s been a while since I’ve broken down some studies for you, so I took on a big one.I’m sure you’ve heard of coral bleaching. What is it? Why does it happen? Why does it matter? To start off, you need to know a little bit more about the individuals that make up a head (fan, whip, etc.): the polyp. Coral polyps look like tiny plants but are actually tiny animals (less than ½ an inch in diameter). They produce calcium carbonate to create a protective shell or skeleton that, when thousan........ Read more »
Anthony KR, Kline DI, Diaz-Pulido G, Dove S, & Hoegh-Guldberg O. (2008) Ocean acidification causes bleaching and productivity loss in coral reef builders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105(45), 17442-6. PMID: 18988740
Perry CT, & Morgan KM. (2017) Bleaching drives collapse in reef carbonate budgets and reef growth potential on southern Maldives reefs. Scientific reports, 40581. PMID: 28084450
High fishing pressure tends to lead to proportionally fewer old and large individuals in fish stocks. It is feared that these demographic changes make the fish stocks more sensitive to climate variability and change. Statistical analysis of long-term survey data on cod eggs throws new light on the possible mechanisms.
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Stige, L., Yaragina, N., Langangen, Ø., Bogstad, B., Stenseth, N., & Ottersen, G. (2017) Effect of a fish stock's demographic structure on offspring survival and sensitivity to climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201621040. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1621040114
In March 2016, a Memorandum of Understanding for Seas of Norden Research School (SEANORS) promoting collaborative marine research and training in the Nordic countries was signed by the rectors of 9 Nordic universities.
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Spawning time and location are important factors affecting the reproductive cycle for migratory fish by potentially affecting offspring survival and growth. We examine this relationships by using a drift model for early life stages (eggs to age 1) of the Northeast Arctic cod combined with empirical estimates of spatial variation in mortality at two different life stages (Langangen
et al. 2016).
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Langangen, Ø., Ottersen, G., Ciannelli, L., Vikebø, F., & Stige, L. (2016) Reproductive strategy of a migratory fish stock: implications of spatial variations in natural mortality. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 1-8. DOI: 10.1139/cjfas-2015-0321
Opdal, A., Vikebø, F., & Fiksen, Ø. (2011) Parental migration, climate and thermal exposure of larvae: spawning in southern regions gives Northeast Arctic cod a warm start. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 255-262. DOI: 10.3354/meps09335
Langangen, Ø., Stige, L., Yaragina, N., Ottersen, G., Vikebø, F., & Stenseth, N. (2014) Spatial variations in mortality in pelagic early life stages of a marine fish (Gadus morhua). Progress in Oceanography, 96-107. DOI: 10.1016/j.pocean.2014.06.003
Ciannelli, L., Dingsør, G., Bogstad, B., Ottersen, G., Chan, K., Gjøsæter, H., Stiansen, J., & Stenseth, N. (2007) Spatial anatomy of species survival: Effects of predation and climate -driven environmental variability. Ecology, 88(3), 635-646. DOI: 10.1890/05-2035
Inspired by an Instagram photo of polar bears playfighting, I decided to find out more about this strange behavior and learned many interesting things about polar bear reproduction.... Read more »
New theories in ocean circulation and acidification, shorter sea ice season in polar bear habitats, and new tools to track bird migrations and hair protein analysis in forensic IDs. Here are five of the latest scientific studies published open-access this week.... Read more »
Klockmann, M., Mikolajewicz, U., & Marotzke, J. (2016) The effect of greenhouse gas concentrations and ice sheets on the glacial AMOC in a coupled climate model. Climate of the Past, 12(9), 1829-1846. DOI: 10.5194/cp-12-1829-2016
Sutton, A., Sabine, C., Feely, R., Cai, W., Cronin, M., McPhaden, M., Morell, J., Newton, J., Noh, J., Ólafsdóttir, S.... (2016) Using present-day observations to detect when anthropogenic change forces surface ocean carbonate chemistry outside preindustrial bounds. Biogeosciences, 13(17), 5065-5083. DOI: 10.5194/bg-13-5065-2016
Shamoun-Baranes, J., Farnsworth, A., Aelterman, B., Alves, J., Azijn, K., Bernstein, G., Branco, S., Desmet, P., Dokter, A., Horton, K.... (2016) Innovative Visualizations Shed Light on Avian Nocturnal Migration. PLOS ONE, 11(8). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160106
Parker, G., Leppert, T., Anex, D., Hilmer, J., Matsunami, N., Baird, L., Stevens, J., Parsawar, K., Durbin-Johnson, B., Rocke, D.... (2016) Demonstration of Protein-Based Human Identification Using the Hair Shaft Proteome. PLOS ONE, 11(9). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0160653
The sex of sea turtle offspring is largely dependent on temperature, and global warming could lead to problems where populations are mostly/all female. However, sea turtles have a trick up their sleeve (in their shells?) that may make them more resilient to the effects of global warming than previously thought.... Read more »
Standora, E., & Spotila, J. (1985) Temperature Dependent Sex Determination in Sea Turtles. Copeia, 1985(3), 711. DOI: 10.2307/1444765
Hays, G., Mazaris, A., & Schofield, G. (2014) Different male vs. female breeding periodicity helps mitigate offspring sex ratio skews in sea turtles. Frontiers in Marine Science. DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2014.00043
Mass mortality events are events that cause elevated mortality that may reduce the population size over a short period. Such events are likely on the rise across the globe and for several taxa (Fey et al. 2015). We recently investigated how such events may affect the community of interacting species in the Barents Sea. For this investigation, we constructed a multi-species model of a key component of the Barents Sea ecosystem consisting of fish and zooplankton
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Langangen, Ø., Ohlberger, J., Stige, L., Durant, J.M., Ravagnan, E., Stenseth, N., & Hjermann, D. (2016) Cascading effects of mass mortality events in Arctic marine communities. Global Change Biology. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13344
Fey, S., Siepielski, A., Nusslé, S., Cervantes-Yoshida, K., Hwan, J., Huber, E., Fey, M., Catenazzi, A., & Carlson, S. (2015) Recent shifts in the occurrence, cause, and magnitude of animal mass mortality events. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(4), 1083-1088. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1414894112
Gompertz, B. (1815) On the Nature of the Function Expressive of the Law of Human Mortality, and on a New Mode of Determining the Value of Life Contingencies. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 252-253. DOI: 10.1098/rspl.1815.0271
(This is my first attempt to blend science and fiction in a single post. The idea is to write about a recent study or studies but explore it through small snippets of original fiction as well. Hope you like it. Feedback is always greatly appreciated…) # A carefully orchestrated dance of chromatophores flashed Octa’s agreement. […]... Read more »
It is notoriously difficult to estimate mortality rates for zooplankton populations in the open ocean. In a new paper, Kvile and colleagues demonstrate that mortality estimation can be improved using a statistical regression approach (SRA) that takes into account advection and spatiotemporal trends in recruitment. Using this method on
Calanus finmarchicus survey data from the Norwegian Sea–Barents Sea, they find indications of increased mortality for the old........ Read more »
AKSNES, D., & OHMAN, M. (1996) A vertical life table approach to zooplankton mortality estimation. Limnology and Oceanography, 41(7), 1461-1469. DOI: 10.4319/lo.19126.96.36.1991
Kvile, K., Stige, L., Prokopchuk, I., & Langangen, �. (2016) A statistical regression approach to estimate zooplankton mortality from spatiotemporal survey data. Journal of Plankton Research. DOI: 10.1093/plankt/fbw028
Swarming Red Crabs, 11,000-year-old shaman headdress, 'superfast' wing muscles, slowdown of giant airstreams, and sexually transmitted infections in Neanderthals. Here are five of the latest scientific studies published open-access this week, ... Read more »
Pineda, J., Cho, W., Starczak, V., Govindarajan, A., Guzman, H., Girdhar, Y., Holleman, R., Churchill, J., Singh, H., & Ralston, D. (2016) A crab swarm at an ecological hotspot: patchiness and population density from AUV observations at a coastal, tropical seamount. PeerJ. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.1770
Little, A., Elliott, B., Conneller, C., Pomstra, D., Evans, A., Fitton, L., Holland, A., Davis, R., Kershaw, R., O’Connor, S.... (2016) Technological Analysis of the World’s Earliest Shamanic Costume: A Multi-Scalar, Experimental Study of a Red Deer Headdress from the Early Holocene Site of Star Carr, North Yorkshire, UK. PLOS ONE, 11(4). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152136
Fuxjager, M., Goller, F., Dirkse, A., Sanin, G., & Garcia, S. (2016) Select forelimb muscles have evolved superfast contractile speed to support acrobatic social displays. eLife. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.13544
Stadtherr, L., Coumou, D., Petoukhov, V., Petri, S., & Rahmstorf, S. (2016) Record Balkan floods of 2014 linked to planetary wave resonance. Science Advances, 2(4). DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.1501428
Houldcroft, C., & Underdown, S. (2016) Neanderthal genomics suggests a pleistocene time frame for the first epidemiologic transition. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.22985
The development of haddock embryos is highly impacted by oil exposure as discussed in a previous post. In a new study Sørhus et al. explored the link between transcriptional changes and developmental processes such as pattern formation and organogenesis. The question is to understand the abnormal development in fish.
... Read more »
Sørhus, E., Incardona, J., Furmanek, T., Jentoft, S., Meier, S., & Edvardsen, R. (2016) Developmental transcriptomics in Atlantic haddock: Illuminating pattern formation and organogenesis in non-model vertebrates. Developmental Biology, 411(2), 301-313. DOI: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2016.02.012
Sørhus, E., Edvardsen, R., Karlsen, Ø., Nordtug, T., van der Meeren, T., Thorsen, A., Harman, C., Jentoft, S., & Meier, S. (2015) Unexpected Interaction with Dispersed Crude Oil Droplets Drives Severe Toxicity in Atlantic Haddock Embryos. PLOS ONE, 10(4). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0124376
Misund, O., & Olsen, E. (2013) Lofoten-Vesteralen: for cod and cod fisheries, but not for oil?. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 70(4), 722-725. DOI: 10.1093/icesjms/fst086
I was just reading this fascinating article published online yesterday in Nature, called “Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification“. The study is investigating what effect ocean acidification is having on reefs, a tricky problem as other confounding...... Read more »
Albright, R., Caldeira, L., Hosfelt, J., Kwiatkowski, L., Maclaren, J., Mason, B., Nebuchina, Y., Ninokawa, A., Pongratz, J., Ricke, K.... (2016) Reversal of ocean acidification enhances net coral reef calcification. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/nature17155
A recently paper published in
PNAS, members of the CEES Marine Group explores potential climate effects on
Calanus finmarchicus, a key zooplankton species in the North Atlantic. The paper shows how the combination of shallow mixed-layer-depth and increased wind apparently increases chlorophyll biomass in spring, and in turn
C. finmarchicus biomass in summer. These findings strongly suggest bottom-up effects of food availability on zoopla........ Read more »
Kvile, K., Langangen, Ø., Prokopchuk, I., Stenseth, N., & Stige, L. (2016) Disentangling the mechanisms behind climate effects on zooplankton. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201525130. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1525130113
Levels of the toxic compound PCBs in the marine environment are now so high that they threaten the very existence of some of Europe’s top sea predators, suggests new research. ... Read more »
Jepson, P., Deaville, R., Barber, J., Aguilar, �., Borrell, A., Murphy, S., Barry, J., Brownlow, A., Barnett, J., Berrow, S.... (2016) PCB pollution continues to impact populations of orcas and other dolphins in European waters. Scientific Reports, 18573. DOI: 10.1038/srep18573
Overfishing, global warming, waste and contamination, and ocean acidification are at the forefront of scientists concerns.... Read more »
Boonstra, W., Ottosen, K., Ferreira, A., Richter, A., Rogers, L., Pedersen, M., Kokkalis, A., Bardarson, H., Bonanomi, S., Butler, W.... (2015) What are the major global threats and impacts in marine environments? Investigating the contours of a shared perception among marine scientists from the bottom-up. Marine Policy, 197-201. DOI: 10.1016/j.marpol.2015.06.007
Marine phytoplankton contribute nearly 50% to global primary production, support zooplankton production and play a vital role in regulating Carbon sequestration. Phytoplankton productivity fluctuations are caused by various direct and indirect effects of temperature, the balance of which show large-scale geographical patterns.
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Feng, J., Durant, J., Stige, L., Hessen, D., Hjermann, D., Zhu, L., Llope, M., & Stenseth, N. (2015) Contrasting correlation patterns between environmental factors and chlorophyll levels in the global ocean. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 29(12), 2095-2107. DOI: 10.1002/2015GB005216
New research suggests that Leopard sharks navigate with their nose, using chemical changes in the water to ‘smell’ their way home.... Read more »
Nosal, A., Chao, Y., Farrara, J., Chai, F., & Hastings, P. (2016) Olfaction Contributes to Pelagic Navigation in a Coastal Shark. PLOS ONE, 11(1). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143758
Friday 11 December 2015, Kristina Øie Kvile has defended her PhD about the climate effects on
Calanus finmarchicus dynamics with success.
... Read more »
Kvile, K., Dalpadado, P., Orlova, E., Stenseth, N., & Stige, L. (2014) Temperature effects on Calanus finmarchicus vary in space, time and between developmental stages. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 85-104. DOI: 10.3354/meps11024
Penguins are highly visible species for the public. Their life has been portrayed in many movies. Unfortunately they are also species impacted by climate change. In a recent publication a team led by Charles Bost used long-term data to relate the large-scale climatic anomalies in the Southern Hemisphere to the foraging behaviour and population dynamics of the king penguin.
... Read more »
Bost, C., Cotté, C., Terray, P., Barbraud, C., Bon, C., Delord, K., Gimenez, O., Handrich, Y., Naito, Y., Guinet, C.... (2015) Large-scale climatic anomalies affect marine predator foraging behaviour and demography. Nature Communications, 8220. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9220
Le Bohec, C., Durant, J., Gauthier-Clerc, M., Stenseth, N., Park, Y., Pradel, R., Gremillet, D., Gendner, J., & Le Maho, Y. (2008) King penguin population threatened by Southern Ocean warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(7), 2493-2497. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0712031105
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