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All posts; Tags Include "Molecular Neuroscience"

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  • September 29, 2016
  • 11:25 PM
  • 441 views

Locating social memories in the brain

by adam phillips in It Ain't Magic

Scientists have identified that social memories are stored in the vetral CA1 region of the brain (in mice). After meeting a mouse and forgetting it, the memories can be reactivated optogenetically, indicating that they exist, but cannot be retrieved after time passes... Read more »

Okuyama, T., Kitamura, T., Roy, D., Itohara, S., & Tonegawa, S. (2016) Ventral CA1 neurons store social memory. Science, 353(6307), 1536-1541. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf7003  

  • August 17, 2016
  • 03:41 PM
  • 247 views

Treacherous Astrocytes – a cause of Epilepsy?

by Vaibhav Jain in NEUROFANATIC

Scientists at the University of Bonn have unearthed the root cause for the development of temporal lobe epilepsy!  At an early stage, astrocytes are uncoupled from each other, this results in the extracellular accumulation of potassium ions and neurotransmitters, which cause hyper-excitability of the neurons. Astrocytes are connected by gap junction channels composed mainly of the gap junction […]... Read more »

Bedner P, Dupper A, Hüttmann K, Müller J, Herde MK, Dublin P, Deshpande T, Schramm J, Häussler U, Haas CA.... (2015) Astrocyte uncoupling as a cause of human temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain : a journal of neurology, 138(Pt 5), 1208-22. PMID: 25765328  

  • July 7, 2016
  • 09:09 AM
  • 800 views

Are animals (and AI’s) people too?

by gdw in FictionalFieldwork

Charles gets up and balances on his short legs. During the brief ungainly walk to the dais, he fights the urge to scratch his arms. The vest that has been tailor-made for him itches. But it will help focus the committee on his purpose, focus on him as a person. He squats on the low […]... Read more »

Perring C. (1997) Degrees of personhood. The Journal of medicine and philosophy, 22(2), 173-97. PMID: 9186928  

Windrem MS, Schanz SJ, Morrow C, Munir J, Chandler-Militello D, Wang S, & Goldman SA. (2014) A competitive advantage by neonatally engrafted human glial progenitors yields mice whose brains are chimeric for human glia. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 34(48), 16153-61. PMID: 25429155  

  • June 12, 2016
  • 10:35 PM
  • 772 views

Seeing Through the Skin

by Aurametrix team in Olfactics and Diagnostics

​Human skin emits light (albeit the glow is extremely weak) and a wide variety of small molecules that may be sometimes "sniffed" by dogs or even other humans. These chemicals tell a story about our health and wellness, things we eat and drink, touch and breathe. Mosquitoes use such emissions to assess our "attractiveness" from indicators such as Indoles (unpleasantly smelling but healthy "inner soil" biomarker) or carbon dioxide (amount of which correlates with the size of the person........ Read more »

Gao W, Emaminejad S, Nyein HY, Challa S, Chen K, Peck A, Fahad HM, Ota H, Shiraki H, Kiriya D.... (2016) Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis. Nature, 529(7587), 509-14. PMID: 26819044  

Yokota T, Zalar P, Kaltenbrunner M, Jinno H, Matsuhisa N, Kitanosako H, Tachibana Y, Yukita W, Koizumi M, & Someya T. (2016) Ultraflexible organic photonic skin. Science advances, 2(4). PMID: 27152354  

  • May 31, 2016
  • 11:30 PM
  • 734 views

42: the answer to life, the universe and everything (i.e., consciousness)

by Piter Boll in Earthling Nature

by Piter Kehoma Boll In his work  “The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy”, Douglas Adams defined that the answer to life, the universe and everything is 42. Now a group of scientists measured glucose metabolism in brains in a resting … Continue reading →... Read more »

Stender, J., Mortensen, K., Thibaut, A., Darkner, S., Laureys, S., Gjedde, A., & Kupers, R. (2016) The Minimal Energetic Requirement of Sustained Awareness after Brain Injury. Current Biology. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2016.04.024  

  • March 20, 2016
  • 09:39 AM
  • 810 views

Neuropsychiatric Outcomes Of Traumatic Brain Injury

by Vivek Misra in Uberbrain Research Frontier

Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, is a substantial head injury that results in damage to the brain. This damage can cause a wide spectrum of possible health outcomes. Factors that are likely to influence neuropsychiatric outcome in TBI can be classified as pre-injury, injury and post-injury factors. Injury-related factors include a) the type of physical injury
Read More
The post Neuropsychiatric Outcomes Of Traumatic Brain Injury appeared first on UBRF: UberBrain R........ Read more »

  • December 21, 2015
  • 08:57 AM
  • 969 views

GABA, autism, and the correlation that wasn’t there

by Jon Brock in DrBrocktagon

Gamma aminobutyric acid (or GABA for short) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter – it makes a neuron less likely to fire. GABA is important, not only in damping down brain activity, but also in controlling the precise timing of the neural impulses. It allows groups of neurons to synchronize their activity and transmit signals across the brain. […]... Read more »

Robertson, C., Ratai, E., & Kanwisher, N. (2015) Reduced GABAergic Action in the Autistic Brain. Current Biology. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2015.11.019  

  • November 11, 2015
  • 06:14 AM
  • 160 views

Shining a Light on Astrocytes!

by Vaibhav Jain in NEUROFANATIC

Astrocytes are known to display dynamic intracellular Ca2 signals, and it has recently been shown that astrocytes rapidly sense and regulate single synapses. Researchers could able to study astrocytic network using optical, pharmacological and genetic tools. Astrocytes in the hippocampus, found to be regulating  neuronal conversations. Here, the flashes of light indicate changes in calcium levels within the […]... Read more »

Haustein MD, Kracun S, Lu XH, Shih T, Jackson-Weaver O, Tong X, Xu J, Yang XW, O'Dell TJ, Marvin JS.... (2014) Conditions and constraints for astrocyte calcium signaling in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway. Neuron, 82(2), 413-29. PMID: 24742463  

  • October 14, 2015
  • 09:53 AM
  • 1,534 views

Feel Our Pain: Empathy and Moral Behavior

by Jalees Rehman in The Next Regeneration

"It's empathy that makes us help other people. It's empathy that makes us moral." The economist Paul Zak casually makes this comment in his widely watched TED talk about the hormone oxytocin, which he dubs the "moral molecule". Zak quotes a number of behavioral studies to support his claim that oxytocin increases empathy and trust, which in turn increases moral behavior. If all humans regularly inhaled a few puffs of oxytocin through a nasal spray, we could become m........ Read more »

De Dreu, C., Greer, L., Van Kleef, G., Shalvi, S., & Handgraaf, M. (2011) Oxytocin promotes human ethnocentrism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(4), 1262-1266. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1015316108  

Shalvi S, & De Dreu CK. (2014) Oxytocin promotes group-serving dishonesty. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(15), 5503-7. PMID: 24706799  

Xu X, Zuo X, Wang X, & Han S. (2009) Do you feel my pain? Racial group membership modulates empathic neural responses. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 29(26), 8525-9. PMID: 19571143  

  • August 7, 2015
  • 07:38 AM
  • 1,098 views

Seeing With Bionic Eyes!

by Viputheshwar Sitaraman in Draw Science

Pulse trains to percepts: the challenge of creating a perceptually intelligible world with sight recovery technologies.... Read more »

  • June 8, 2015
  • 01:10 PM
  • 757 views

Genetics Leading to Better Bipolar Disorder Diagnosis

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

I wanted to alert Brain Posts readers to an important new review of genetics and diagnosis in brain disorders including bipolar disorder.One hope for the emerging genetics research in mental disorders is a better diagnostic classification system.The current psychiatric diagnostic system is hampered by use of a primary symptoms and signs approach leading to messy heterogeneous groups of clinical conditions.Elliot Gerson has been a giant in neuroscience genetics for quite some time and recently pu........ Read more »

  • April 14, 2015
  • 03:36 PM
  • 1,491 views

Tracking membranes by imaging – mCLING and surface glycans

by Gal Haimovich in Green Fluorescent Blog

Living cells exhibit many types of membranes which participate in most biological precesses, one way or another. Imaging membranes is usually acheived by two types of reagents: chemical dyes or fluorescent proteins that are targeted to the membrane itself or … Continue reading →... Read more »

Jiang H, English BP, Hazan RB, Wu P, & Ovryn B. (2015) Tracking surface glycans on live cancer cells with single-molecule sensitivity. Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English), 54(6), 1765-9. PMID: 25515330  

Revelo NH, Kamin D, Truckenbrodt S, Wong AB, Reuter-Jessen K, Reisinger E, Moser T, & Rizzoli SO. (2014) A new probe for super-resolution imaging of membranes elucidates trafficking pathways. The Journal of cell biology, 205(4), 591-606. PMID: 24862576  

  • March 26, 2015
  • 12:38 AM
  • 968 views

The Smell of Stress and Fear

by Aurametrix team in Olfactics and Diagnostics

Can we recognize if people around us are stressed, anxious or fearful without observing their facial expressions, body language and actions or hearing their voice and messages? Can we understand if we are stressed ourselves without assessing our heart rate, blood pressure, noticing dry throat, sweating, drops or surges in energy? Yes, we can - by using our nose - as humans, too, recognize and transmit their emotions through chemical senses.When we are stressed or panic we become more sensit........ Read more »

Haegler, K., Zernecke, R., Kleemann, A., Albrecht, J., Pollatos, O., Brückmann, H., & Wiesmann, M. (2010) No fear no risk! Human risk behavior is affected by chemosensory anxiety signals. Neuropsychologia, 48(13), 3901-3908. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.09.019  

Prehn-Kristensen A, Wiesner C, Bergmann TO, Wolff S, Jansen O, Mehdorn HM, Ferstl R, & Pause BM. (2009) Induction of empathy by the smell of anxiety. PloS one, 4(6). PMID: 19551135  

  • March 23, 2015
  • 12:39 PM
  • 1,224 views

Visualizing translation: insert TRICK pun here

by Gal Haimovich in Green Fluorescent Blog

Unlike transcription, it is much harder to image translation at the single molecule level. The reasons are numerous. For starters, transcription sites (TS) are fairly immobile, whereas mRNAs, ribosomes and proteins move freely in the cytoplasm, often very fast. Then … Continue reading →... Read more »

Halstead JM, Lionnet T, Wilbertz JH, Wippich F, Ephrussi A, Singer RH, & Chao JA. (2015) Translation. An RNA biosensor for imaging the first round of translation from single cells to living animals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 347(6228), 1367-671. PMID: 25792328  

Dieterich DC, Hodas JJ, Gouzer G, Shadrin IY, Ngo JT, Triller A, Tirrell DA, & Schuman EM. (2010) In situ visualization and dynamics of newly synthesized proteins in rat hippocampal neurons. Nature neuroscience, 13(7), 897-905. PMID: 20543841  

Rodriguez, A., Shenoy, S., Singer, R., & Condeelis, J. (2006) Visualization of mRNA translation in living cells. The Journal of Cell Biology, 175(1), 67-76. DOI: 10.1083/jcb.200512137  

  • March 15, 2015
  • 05:59 PM
  • 669 views

The toxicity of microglia in glaucoma

by Matthew Zabel in Gliosis

A description of microglial toxicity in a mouse model of glaucoma. ... Read more »

Bazan JF, Bacon KB, Hardiman G, Wang W, Soo K, Rossi D, Greaves DR, Zlotnik A, & Schall TJ. (1997) A new class of membrane-bound chemokine with a CX3C motif. Nature, 385(6617), 640-4. PMID: 9024663  

Cardona AE, Pioro EP, Sasse ME, Kostenko V, Cardona SM, Dijkstra IM, Huang D, Kidd G, Dombrowski S, Dutta R.... (2006) Control of microglial neurotoxicity by the fractalkine receptor. Nature neuroscience, 9(7), 917-24. PMID: 16732273  

Paolicelli RC, Bolasco G, Pagani F, Maggi L, Scianni M, Panzanelli P, Giustetto M, Ferreira TA, Guiducci E, Dumas L.... (2011) Synaptic pruning by microglia is necessary for normal brain development. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6048), 1456-8. PMID: 21778362  

  • March 14, 2015
  • 11:54 PM
  • 1,295 views

New approaches to epilepsy treatment: optogenetics and DREADDs

by neurosci in Neuroscientifically Challenged

Epilepsy refers to a group of disorders that are characterized by recurrent seizures. It is a relatively common neurological condition, and is considered the most common serious (implying that there is a risk of mortality) brain disorder, affecting around 2.2 million Americans.The seizures associated with epilepsy are not homogenous; they can have a drastically different presentation depending on the patient, the part of the brain the seizure originates in, and how much of the brain the seizure ........ Read more »

  • March 11, 2015
  • 12:42 PM
  • 622 views

Surfacing Issues of Peripheral Monocyte Infiltration in Neurodegenerative Diseases

by Matthew Zabel in Gliosis

A look into the differences between endogenous microglia and peripheral macrophages.... Read more »

Butovsky O, Jedrychowski MP, Moore CS, Cialic R, Lanser AJ, Gabriely G, Koeglsperger T, Dake B, Wu PM, Doykan CE.... (2014) Identification of a unique TGF-β-dependent molecular and functional signature in microglia. Nature neuroscience, 17(1), 131-43. PMID: 24316888  

Hickman SE, Kingery ND, Ohsumi TK, Borowsky ML, Wang LC, Means TK, & El Khoury J. (2013) The microglial sensome revealed by direct RNA sequencing. Nature neuroscience, 16(12), 1896-905. PMID: 24162652  

Varvel NH, Grathwohl SA, Baumann F, Liebig C, Bosch A, Brawek B, Thal DR, Charo IF, Heppner FL, Aguzzi A.... (2012) Microglial repopulation model reveals a robust homeostatic process for replacing CNS myeloid cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(44), 18150-5. PMID: 23071306  

  • March 11, 2015
  • 12:41 PM
  • 16 views

Surfacing issues of peripheral monocyte infiltration in neurodegenerative diseases

by Matthew Zabel in Gliosis

I describe the necessity to differentiate between endogenous microglia and
peripheral monocytes. ... Read more »

Butovsky O, Jedrychowski MP, Moore CS, Cialic R, Lanser AJ, Gabriely G, Koeglsperger T, Dake B, Wu PM, Doykan CE.... (2014) Identification of a unique TGF-β-dependent molecular and functional signature in microglia. Nature neuroscience, 17(1), 131-43. PMID: 24316888  

Hickman SE, Kingery ND, Ohsumi TK, Borowsky ML, Wang LC, Means TK, & El Khoury J. (2013) The microglial sensome revealed by direct RNA sequencing. Nature neuroscience, 16(12), 1896-905. PMID: 24162652  

Varvel NH, Grathwohl SA, Baumann F, Liebig C, Bosch A, Brawek B, Thal DR, Charo IF, Heppner FL, Aguzzi A.... (2012) Microglial repopulation model reveals a robust homeostatic process for replacing CNS myeloid cells. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(44), 18150-5. PMID: 23071306  

  • March 11, 2015
  • 09:03 AM
  • 666 views

After Consulting Dr. Wiki, You Should Get a Second Opinion

by Vivek Misra in Uberbrain Research Frontier

We have all been there: waking up in the middle of the night with a pounding headache, nausea, rashes on skin or another ailment with an unexplained origin. More often than not, first thing we’re inclined to do is begin... Read more »

Hasty RT, Garbalosa RC, Barbato VA, Valdes PJ Jr, Powers DW, Hernandez E, John JS, Suciu G, Qureshi F, Popa-Radu M.... (2014) Wikipedia vs peer-reviewed medical literature for information about the 10 most costly medical conditions. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 114(5), 368-73. PMID: 24778001  

  • March 4, 2015
  • 05:57 PM
  • 16 views

The Toxicity of Microglia in Glaucoma

by Matthew Zabel in Gliosis

On the role of microglial fractalkine (CX3CR1/CX3CL1) signaling in
glaucoma. ... Read more »

Bazan JF, Bacon KB, Hardiman G, Wang W, Soo K, Rossi D, Greaves DR, Zlotnik A, & Schall TJ. (1997) A new class of membrane-bound chemokine with a CX3C motif. Nature, 385(6617), 640-4. PMID: 9024663  

Cardona AE, Pioro EP, Sasse ME, Kostenko V, Cardona SM, Dijkstra IM, Huang D, Kidd G, Dombrowski S, Dutta R.... (2006) Control of microglial neurotoxicity by the fractalkine receptor. Nature neuroscience, 9(7), 917-24. PMID: 16732273  

Paolicelli RC, Bolasco G, Pagani F, Maggi L, Scianni M, Panzanelli P, Giustetto M, Ferreira TA, Guiducci E, Dumas L.... (2011) Synaptic pruning by microglia is necessary for normal brain development. Science (New York, N.Y.), 333(6048), 1456-8. PMID: 21778362  

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