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Brain Windows is a blog devoted to reporting, analyzing and interpreting the latest results in the field of brain imaging technologies, particularly at the levels of systems, circuits, single cells and below.
Trying to start a reboot of the posts here on Brain Windows. Lots of great stuff has come out since the last regular posting period, and unfortunately I don’t have the time to cover it all. One of the most exciting papers of the last few months was Rapid blue-light–mediated induction of protein interactions in [...]... Read more »
Kennedy MJ, Hughes RM, Peteya LA, Schwartz JW, Ehlers MD, & Tucker CL. (2010) Rapid blue-light-mediated induction of protein interactions in living cells. Nature methods, 7(12), 973-5. PMID: 21037589
The Deissseroth lab has released an updated version of their optical neuronal silencing gene Natronomonas halorhodopsin. In Molecular and Cellular Approaches for Diversifying and Extending Optogenetics, Gradinaru et al review current optogenetic methodology, and introduce eNpHR3.0-2A-ChR2, a genetic vector whose expression allows both action potential silencing and firing via illumination. This vector uses post-translational cleavage (via cis-acting hydrolase elements) [...]... Read more »
Gradinaru, V., Zhang, F., Ramakrishnan, C., Mattis, J., Prakash, R., Diester, I., Goshen, I., Thompson, K., & Deisseroth, K. (2010) Molecular and Cellular Approaches for Diversifying and Extending Optogenetics. Cell. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2010.02.037
Tang, W., Ehrlich, I., Wolff, S., Michalski, A., Wolfl, S., Hasan, M., Luthi, A., & Sprengel, R. (2009) Faithful Expression of Multiple Proteins via 2A-Peptide Self-Processing: A Versatile and Reliable Method for Manipulating Brain Circuits. Journal of Neuroscience, 29(27), 8621-8629. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0359-09.2009
Atsushi Miyawaki’s lab has developed a series of neat tools for visualizing cell cycle progress.... Read more »
Sugiyama, M., Sakaue-Sawano, A., Iimura, T., Fukami, K., Kitaguchi, T., Kawakami, K., Okamoto, H., Higashijima, S., & Miyawaki, A. (2009) Illuminating cell-cycle progression in the developing zebrafish embryo. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(49), 20812-20817. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0906464106
Kanki, H., Shimabukuro, M., Miyawaki, A., & Okano, H. (2010) "Color Timer" mice: visualization of neuronal differentiation with fluorescent proteins. Molecular Brain, 3(1), 5. DOI: 10.1186/1756-6606-3-5
Nguyen et al demonstrate a mammalian cell based system for optically measuring ACh levels in an intact brain. They coexpressed M1 muscarinic receptors with the genetically-encoded calcium indicator TN-XXL in HEK293 cells. ACh binding to the M1 receptor induced IP3-mediated calcium influx. This calcium rise was then picked up by the TN-XXL and reported as a change in CFP/YFP fluorescence. The crazy part is that they took this cell culture assay and implanted the cells into the brains of livin........ Read more »
Nguyen, Q., Schroeder, L., Mank, M., Muller, A., Taylor, P., Griesbeck, O., & Kleinfeld, D. (2009) An in vivo biosensor for neurotransmitter release and in situ receptor activity. Nature Neuroscience, 13(1), 127-132. DOI: 10.1038/nn.2469
Inhibition has a powerful role shaping the network dynamics of the cortex, but most studies of inhibitory circuitry are done in brain slice or anesthetized animals. In Membrane potential dynamics of GABAergic neurons in barrel cortex of behaving mice, Gentet et al use two-photon imaging to guide dual, whole-cell patch clamp of inhibitory and excitatory neurons in the mouse barrel cortex. ... Read more »
Gentet, L., Avermann, M., Matyas, F., Staiger, J., & Petersen, C. (2010) Membrane Potential Dynamics of GABAergic Neurons in the Barrel Cortex of Behaving Mice. Neuron, 65(3), 422-435. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.01.006
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