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  • November 28, 2014
  • 11:56 AM
  • 14 views

New discovery sheds light on the forming brain

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

The cerebral cortex, which controls higher processes such as perception, thought and cognition, is the most complex structure in the mammalian central nervous system. Although much is known about the intricate structure of this brain region, the processes governing its formation remain uncertain. Research has now uncovered how feedback between cells, as well as molecular factors, helps shape cortical development during mouse embryogenesis.... Read more »

  • November 28, 2014
  • 10:54 AM
  • 18 views

Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans

by Mila Pajkovic in genome ecology evolution etc

Introduction & Methods The demographic history of the human species has always fascinated us. It is known that the ancestral human lineage appeared in East Africa, and that it subsequently migrated out of Africa towards Eurasia, separating into distinct lineages … Continue reading →... Read more »

Lazaridis, I., Patterson, N., Mittnik, A., Renaud, G., Mallick, S., Kirsanow, K., Sudma..lsate, D., Francken, M., Guinet, J., Wahl, J.... (2014) Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans. Nature, 513(7518), 409-413. DOI: 10.1038/nature13673  

  • November 28, 2014
  • 04:56 AM
  • 14 views

The natural history of angiomyolipoma in cases of sporadic LAM

by Lizzie Perdeaux in BHD Research Blog

Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a cystic lung disease that predominantly affects women. Roughly 90% of cases are sporadic and are caused by somatic mutation of the TSC2 gene, but some patients develop LAM as part of the syndrome Tuberous Sclerosis Complex … Continue reading →... Read more »

  • November 28, 2014
  • 02:34 AM
  • 18 views

The Autism-Spectrum Quotient: overlap between Asperger syndrome and schizophrenia

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

The paper by Tove Lugnegård and colleagues [1], including mention of one Maria Unenge Hallerbäck who has appeared on this blog previously, is fodder for today's discussions and their finding that a: "significant overlap of AQ [Autism-Spectrum Quotient] scores across the two diagnostic groups clearly reduces the discriminating power of the AQ in the separation of schizophrenia from AS [Asperger syndrome]."They say you're judged by the strength of your enemies.As per that link to ........ Read more »

  • November 27, 2014
  • 12:40 PM
  • 35 views

Fragile X and a new autism treatment

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

There are many roads to autism, none of them involve vaccination. I get tired of saying that, but it’s simple science, vaccines do not cause autism. Thankfully science knows this and is looking at not only what actually causes autism (Since again there are many different ways to develop on the spectrum). Well they may have found a new treatment for people affected by a common inherited form of autism by using a drug that is being tested as a treatment for cancer.... Read more »

Gkogkas, C., Khoutorsky, A., Cao, R., Jafarnejad, S., Prager-Khoutorsky, M., Giannakas, N., Kaminari, A., Fragkouli, A., Nader, K., Price, T.... (2014) Pharmacogenetic Inhibition of eIF4E-Dependent Mmp9 mRNA Translation Reverses Fragile X Syndrome-like Phenotypes. Cell Reports. DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2014.10.064  

  • November 27, 2014
  • 11:30 AM
  • 31 views

Potential New Roles for Bacteria and B Cells in Promoting the Stomach Flu

by Geoffrey Hannigan in Prophage

We are all unfortunately familiar with the notorious stomach flu. Most of us have experienced that awful nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and tiredness associated with catching some stomach bug. While there are many viral causes of the stomach flu (also called gastroenteritis), one of the most common is the Norovirus. The Norovirus is a common and contagious virus that is currently the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis...... Read more »

Jones, M., Watanabe, M., Zhu, S., Graves, C., Keyes, L., Grau, K., Gonzalez-Hernandez, M., Iovine, N., Wobus, C., Vinje, J.... (2014) Enteric bacteria promote human and mouse norovirus infection of B cells. Science, 346(6210), 755-759. DOI: 10.1126/science.1257147  

  • November 27, 2014
  • 04:55 AM
  • 47 views

FC is a technique that has no validity

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

FC, by the way, refers to Facilitated Communication, a controversial technique which as the name suggests relies on a facilitator to support "the hand or arm of a communicatively impaired individual while using a keyboard or other devices with the aim of helping the individual to point and thereby to communicate." The quote for the title of this post comes from the paper by Ralf Schlosser and colleagues [1] who following systematic review, found "unequivocal evidence for facilitator co........ Read more »

Schlosser RW, Balandin S, Hemsley B, Iacono T, Probst P, & von Tetzchner S. (2014) Facilitated Communication and Authorship: A Systematic Review. Augmentative and alternative communication (Baltimore, Md. : 1985), 1-10. PMID: 25384895  

  • November 26, 2014
  • 03:20 PM
  • 61 views

Need to turn off the pain? Well now we can!

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

My sister suffers from chronic pain issues. I’ve written several posts about how her autoimmune disease is a special brand of pain that you will thankfully (almost certainly) never have to feel. While great strides have been made in pain management, there are still relatively few options that do not carry the risk of being extremely addictive. Well thankfully there is some new research and it offers hope, not just for my sister, but for the millions of people suffering from chronic pain that ........ Read more »

Little JW, Ford A, Symons-Liguori AM, Chen Z, Janes K, Doyle T, Xie J, Luongo L, Tosh DK, Maione S.... (2014) Endogenous adenosine A3 receptor activation selectively alleviates persistent pain states. Brain : a journal of neurology. PMID: 25414036  

  • November 26, 2014
  • 02:35 PM
  • 47 views

Tryptophan vs. The NFL Fan

by Mark Lasbury in The 'Scope

What is tryptophan, and is it indeed responsible for the snoring that follows Thanksgiving dinner? ... Read more »

  • November 26, 2014
  • 01:24 PM
  • 44 views

Chikungunya Virus nsP2 and the ER stress response

by thelonevirologist in Virology Tidbits

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is the causative agent of an arthropod (mosquito) transmitted disease which is characterised by a high fever, rash, joint pain, and arthritis which was reported in 1952 in Tanzania but has spread since to Europe, Asia, Oceania and more recently to America, including the Caribbean and North America.
Here the inhibition of the ER stress response by the viral nsP2 protein is discussed in the context of viral infection. ... Read more »

Krejbich-Trotot P, Gay B, Li-Pat-Yuen G, Hoarau JJ, Jaffar-Bandjee MC, Briant L, Gasque P, & Denizot M. (2011) Chikungunya triggers an autophagic process which promotes viral replication. Virology journal, 432. PMID: 21902836  

Frolov I, Akhrymuk M, Akhrymuk I, Atasheva S, & Frolova EI. (2012) Early events in alphavirus replication determine the outcome of infection. Journal of virology, 86(9), 5055-66. PMID: 22345447  

Rudd PA, Wilson J, Gardner J, Larcher T, Babarit C, Le TT, Anraku I, Kumagai Y, Loo YM, Gale M Jr.... (2012) Interferon response factors 3 and 7 protect against Chikungunya virus hemorrhagic fever and shock. Journal of virology, 86(18), 9888-98. PMID: 22761364  

Fros JJ, Liu WJ, Prow NA, Geertsema C, Ligtenberg M, Vanlandingham DL, Schnettler E, Vlak JM, Suhrbier A, Khromykh AA.... (2010) Chikungunya virus nonstructural protein 2 inhibits type I/II interferon-stimulated JAK-STAT signaling. Journal of virology, 84(20), 10877-87. PMID: 20686047  

Fros JJ, Major LD, Scholte FE, Gardner J, van Hemert MJ, Suhrbier A, & Pijlman GP. (2014) Chikungunya virus nsP2-mediated host shut-off disables the unfolded protein response. The Journal of general virology. PMID: 25395592  

Rathore AP, Haystead T, Das PK, Merits A, Ng ML, & Vasudevan SG. (2014) Chikungunya virus nsP3 . Antiviral research, 7-16. PMID: 24388965  

  • November 26, 2014
  • 09:35 AM
  • 58 views

Illusion Makes People Speak with the Voice of Their Avatar

by Elizabeth Preston in Inkfish

Think you’re in control of your own body? A simple virtual-reality session could not only make you feel like an avatar’s body is your own, but make you speak more like the digital character. First there was the rubber-hand illusion, a classic experiment that showed syncing up someone’s touch perceptions with what they see happening […]The post Illusion Makes People Speak with the Voice of Their Avatar appeared first on Inkfish.... Read more »

  • November 26, 2014
  • 07:23 AM
  • 46 views

November 26, 2014

by Erin Campbell in HighMag Blog

 Patterns are soothing for left-brained folks like me, with the exception being those terrible patterned holiday sweaters that will come out of mothball-ridden closets soon (unsettling for everyone, really). Today’s images are from a paper describing a new micropatterning technique to look at plasma membrane proteins. The plasma membrane of a cell is riddled with many multi-protein complexes that facilitate communication and transport. These complexes provide a challenge to biologi........ Read more »

Lochte, S., Waichman, S., Beutel, O., You, C., & Piehler, J. (2014) Live cell micropatterning reveals the dynamics of signaling complexes at the plasma membrane. originally published in the Journal of Cell Biology, 207(3), 407-418. DOI: 10.1083/jcb.201406032  

  • November 26, 2014
  • 07:12 AM
  • 48 views

Thanksgiving week, light posting. One holiday genome (cranberries).

by Mary in OpenHelix

There’s nobody reading the blog this week each year, everyone is traveling or napping, at least in the US. So I’ll just bring a holiday genome I came across recently. Cranberries. This fruit is one of very few native North American fruits that are widely cultivated. I went looking to see if a genome paper […]... Read more »

  • November 26, 2014
  • 04:54 AM
  • 61 views

The gut microbiome in Down Syndrome

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

The recent preliminary findings from Elena Biagi and colleagues [1] (open-access) reporting on the constitution of the gut microbiome - the collected bacteria which reside in the deepest, darkest recesses of our gastrointestinal (GI) tract - in a small number of cases of Down's syndrome caught my eye recently.It's a funny feeling being taken under the wing of a dragonPerhaps a little bit unusually looking at the gut microbiome because of the link between premature ageing in Down's syndrome ........ Read more »

Biagi E, Candela M, Centanni M, Consolandi C, Rampelli S, Turroni S, Severgnini M, Peano C, Ghezzo A, Scurti M.... (2014) Gut Microbiome in Down Syndrome. PloS one, 9(11). PMID: 25386941  

  • November 25, 2014
  • 01:18 PM
  • 66 views

Oy. I worry about this with cell line studies a lot. Mis-IDed contaminated.

by Mary in OpenHelix

Via NCBI Announce mailing list: NCBI BioSample includes curated list of over 400 known misidentified and contaminated cell lines The NCBI BioSample database now includes a curated list of over 400 known misidentified and contaminated cell lines. Scientists should check this list before they start working with a new cell line to see if that cell line […]... Read more »

American Type Culture Collection Standards Development Organization Workgroup ASN-0002. (2010) Cell line misidentification: the beginning of the end. Nature Reviews Cancer, 10(6), 441-448. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nrc2852  

  • November 25, 2014
  • 08:00 AM
  • 58 views

As A Bird - It's No Turkey

by Mark Lasbury in As Many Exceptions As Rules

The turkey is an amazing bird, beyond it’s taste on Thanksgiving. It has some really funky structures on its head, like the caruncles, wattle and snood, but research shows that they are important in mate selection. The question is why they have been retained even though they are artificially bred nowadays. Maybe they are for more than just mate selection. And yes....turkeys can fly.... Read more »

  • November 25, 2014
  • 03:20 AM
  • 55 views

Serotonin - melatonin (and the in-betweeners) linked to autism

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

The paper by Pagan and colleagues [1] (open-access) looking at "serotonin, melatonin and the intermediate N-acetylserotonin (NAS) in a large cohort of patients with ASD [autism spectrum disorder] and their relatives" set the old grey-pink matter into action recently. Not only because I have some real interest in the starting material for these compounds - the aromatic amino acid known as tryptophan - but because this research group included some quite important analysis of the enz........ Read more »

Pagan C, Delorme R, Callebert J, Goubran-Botros H, Amsellem F, Drouot X, Boudebesse C, Le Dudal K, Ngo-Nguyen N, Laouamri H.... (2014) The serotonin-N-acetylserotonin-melatonin pathway as a biomarker for autism spectrum disorders. Translational psychiatry. PMID: 25386956  

  • November 24, 2014
  • 03:26 PM
  • 53 views

Hiding cells to prevent HIV transmission

by Gabriel in Lunatic Laboratories

The fight against HIV is ongoing and despite our rapid progression against the disease we still lack a cure or even adequate treatment for people infected. However, new research suggests that cloaking immune cells with antibodies that block T cell trafficking to the gut can substantially reduce the risk of viral transmission, at least in a non-human primate model of HIV infection. If it works out, this could help slow down the spread of HIV and give people a better shot at a normal life.... Read more »

  • November 24, 2014
  • 05:15 AM
  • 60 views

Helicobacter pylori and stem cells in the gastric crypt

by Artem Kaznatcheev in Evolutionary Games Group

Last Friday, the 4th Integrated Mathematical Oncology Workshop finished here at Moffitt. The event drew a variety of internal and external participants — you can see a blurry photo of many of them above — and was structured as a competition between four teams specializing in four different domains: Microbiome, Hepatitis C, Human papillomavirus, and […]... Read more »

Houghton, J., Stoicov, C., Nomura, S., Rogers, A.B., Carlson, J., Li, H., Cai, X., Fox, J.G., Goldenring, J.R., & Wang, T.C. (2004) Gastric cancer originating from bone marrow-derived cells. Science, 306(5701), 1568-71. PMID: 15567866  

  • November 24, 2014
  • 04:29 AM
  • 53 views

Finland, parental migration and offspring Asperger syndrome

by Paul Whiteley in Questioning Answers

A quote from the paper by Venla Lehti and colleagues [1] to start things off: "The study showed that children whose parents are both immigrants have a significantly lower likelihood of being diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome than those with two Finnish parents."Can I cook, or can't I?Based on an analysis of data derived from "the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register" and "the Finnish Medical Birth Register", researchers looked at the records of children with a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome (AS)........ Read more »

Lehti V, Cheslack-Postava K, Gissler M, Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki S, Brown AS, & Sourander A. (2014) Parental migration and Asperger's syndrome. European child . PMID: 25381114  

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