It seems like everyone is running around buying school supplies and books, registering for classes, and fretting about how hard it is going to be to learn another whole year’s worth of stuff. The secret to success, it turns out, may lie in cow dung.A cow pie. Photo taken by Jeff Vanuga at the USDA available at Wikimedia Commons.Recent research has highlighted the important role that microbes living in animal digestive tracts have on host animals’ health and behavior. This influence of our gu........ Read more »
Matthews, D., & Jenks, S. (2013) Ingestion of Mycobacterium vaccae decreases anxiety-related behavior and improves learning in mice. Behavioural Processes, 27-35. DOI: 10.1016/j.beproc.2013.02.007
Lowry, C., Hollis, J., de Vries, A., Pan, B., Brunet, L., Hunt, J., Paton, J., van Kampen, E., Knight, D., Evans, A.... (2007) Identification of an immune-responsive mesolimbocortical serotonergic system: Potential role in regulation of emotional behavior. Neuroscience, 146(2), 756-772. DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2007.01.067
Cats on a treadmill. From Treadmill Kittens.It's been an eventful week. The 10th Anniversary of Hurricane Katrina. The 10th Anniversary of Optogenetics (with commentary from the neuroscience community and from the inventors). The Reproducibility Project's efforts to replicate 100 studies in cognitive and social psychology (published in Science). And the passing of the great writer and neurologist, Oliver Sacks. Oh, and Wes Craven just died too...I'm not blogging about any of these events. Many ........ Read more »
Bottari, D., Troje, N., Ley, P., Hense, M., Kekunnaya, R., & Röder, B. (2015) The neural development of the biological motion processing system does not rely on early visual input. Cortex, 359-367. DOI: 10.1016/j.cortex.2015.07.029
I once again tread carefully in this brief post talking about stem cells and autism on the back of what seems to be some growing research interest in this area (see here).The paper by Hadar Segal-Gavish and colleagues  adds to this increasing interest with their efforts detailing what happened to a mouse model of autism (the BTBR mouse) following "intracerebroventricular MSC [mesenchymal stem cells] transplantation."Looking at what happened when MSC transplantation was used, th........ Read more »
Segal-Gavish H, Karvat G, Barak N, Barzilay R, Ganz J, Edry L, Aharony I, Offen D, & Kimchi T. (2015) Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation Promotes Neurogenesis and Ameliorates Autism Related Behaviors in BTBR Mice. Autism research : official journal of the International Society for Autism Research. PMID: 26257137
A serum biomarker measured on the day of an injury could help diagnose a traumatic brain injury and differentiate mild injuries from more severe injuries.... Read more »
Korley FK, Diaz-Arrastia R, Wu AH, Yue JK, Manley GT M D Ph D, Sair HI, Van Eyk J, Everett AD, Okonkwo DO, Valadka A.... (2015) Circulating Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Has Diagnostic and Prognostic Value in Traumatic Brain Injury. Journal of Neurotrauma. PMID: 26159676
Parents go to great lengths to ensure the health and well-being of their developing offspring. The favor, however, may not always be returned. Dramatic research has shown that during pregnancy, cells of the fetus often migrate through the placenta, taking up residence in many areas of the mother’s body, where their influence may benefit or undermine maternal health.... Read more »
Boddy, A., Fortunato, A., Wilson Sayres, M., & Aktipis, A. (2015) Fetal microchimerism and maternal health: A review and evolutionary analysis of cooperation and conflict beyond the womb. BioEssays. DOI: 10.1002/bies.201500059
To understand how confidence in parenting may predict parenting behaviors in women who were abused as children, psychologists have found that mothers who experienced more types of maltreatment as children are more critical of their ability to parent successfully. Intervention programs for moms at-risk, therefore, should focus on bolstering mothers’ self-confidence–not just teach parenting skills, the researchers said.... Read more »
Michl, L., Handley, E., Rogosch, F., Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. (2015) Self-Criticism as a Mechanism Linking Childhood Maltreatment and Maternal Efficacy Beliefs in Low-Income Mothers With and Without Depression. Child Maltreatment. DOI: 10.1177/1077559515602095
So: "The meta-analysis results support an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder in children of women who were obese during pregnancy. However, further study is warranted to confirm these results."That was the conclusion reached by Ya-Min Li and colleagues  looking at the collected peer-reviewed data currently available on how maternal weight might impact on offspring neurodevelopmental outcomes. Without wishing to blame or stigmatise (this is a blog based on the examination of cold,........ Read more »
Li YM, Ou JJ, Liu L, Zhang D, Zhao JP, & Tang SY. (2015) Association Between Maternal Obesity and Autism Spectrum Disorder in Offspring: A Meta-analysis. Journal of autism and developmental disorders. PMID: 26254893
Included in the vast array of molecules put together by bacteria are pigments, with a blotch of colour often marking the presence of a large bacterial population in nature. In addition to green stains on damp concrete and vibrant rainbows of ooze in hot springs, pigment-making bacteria will very occasionally announce their presence by infecting us and subsequently changing the colour of our body parts and fluids. Weird eh?The king of turning people a different colour is Serratia marcescens. This........ Read more »
Kinjo T, Nabeya D, Higa F, & Fujita J. (2014) Orange sputum in a patient with Legionella pneumophila pneumonia. Internal Medicine, 53(17), 2029-2030. DOI: 10.2169/internalmedicine.53.2897
Stefater J, Borkar D, & Chodosh J. (2015) Pink hypopyon in a patient with Serratia marcescens corneal ulceration. Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection, 5(1). DOI: 10.1186/s12348-015-0041-4
Diets rich in fish oil versus diets rich in lard produce very different bacteria in the guts of mice, reports a new study. The researchers transferred these microbes into other mice to see how they affected health. The results suggest that gut bacteria share some of the responsibility for the beneficial effects of fish oil and the harmful effects of lard.... Read more »
Caesar, R., Tremaroli, V., Kovatcheva-Datchary, P., Cani, P., & Bäckhed, F. (2015) Crosstalk between Gut Microbiota and Dietary Lipids Aggravates WAT Inflammation through TLR Signaling. Cell Metabolism. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2015.07.026
Sneaky swarming squid sperm. Yeah, let’s talk about that. ‘Cause you hear that and you gotta know, right? But before all the sperm and the swarming is the amorous squid. Let’s start there.As you may expect, squid have both a male and a female. Male squid produce spermatophores, packets of sperm that they can transfer to the females. Female squid carry around these sperm packets until they are ready to spawn. That can be quite some time in some species. When they are ready, they will use th........ Read more »
Hirohashi, N., Alvarez, L., Shiba, K., Fujiwara, E., Iwata, Y., Mohri, T., Inaba, K., Chiba, K., Ochi, H., Supuran, C.... (2013) Sperm from Sneaker Male Squids Exhibit Chemotactic Swarming to CO2. Current Biology, 23(9), 775-781. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.03.040
Iwata, Y., Shaw, P., Fujiwara, E., Shiba, K., Kakiuchi, Y., & Hirohashi, N. (2011) Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 11(1), 236. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-11-236
To address a long-standing mystery in paleontology, scientists went to the grocery store.
Many dinosaur fossils appear in the same pose, not so much "terrible lizard" as "terrible limbo accident." Their tails are stretched out and their necks thrown back grotesquely. But it's not clear why this is. Researchers from the University of Calgary in Canada got a fresh take on the puzzle—or, at least, a recently killed and frozen take—by using dead chickens.
"Chickens are living dinosaurs, a........ Read more »
Russell, A., & Bentley, A. (2015) Opisthotonic head displacement in the domestic chicken and its bearing on the ‘dead bird’ posture of non-avialan dinosaurs. Journal of Zoology. DOI: 10.1111/jzo.12287
While 97 per cent of the original results showed a statistically significanteffect, this was reproduced in only 36 per cent of the replications After some high-profile and at times acrimonious failures to replicate past landmark findings, psychology as a discipline and scientific community has led the way in trying to find out more about why some scientific findings reproduce and others don't, including instituting reporting practices to improve the reliability of future results. Much ........ Read more »
Open Science Collaboration. (2015) Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science . Science . info:/
Contrary results are a common feature of the autism peer-reviewed research landscape. No sooner does one group publish the next 'big thing' when it comes to the singular term 'autism' than seemingly opposite results follow suit.So it is with the paper under discussion today by Simran Kalra and colleagues  (open-access) who concluded that: "The idea that autoantibodies represent an underlying cause or are biomarkers for autism pathophysiology is not supported by this report."Autoantibodies by ........ Read more »
Kalra, S., Burbelo, P., Bayat, A., Ching, K., Thurm, A., Iadarola, M., & Swedo, S. (2015) No evidence of antibodies against GAD65 and other specific antigens in children with autism. BBA Clinical. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbacli.2015.08.001
The Minimalist Index for running shoes... Read more »
Esculier, J., Dubois, B., Dionne, C., Leblond, J., & Roy, J. (2015) A consensus definition and rating scale for minimalist shoes. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 8(1). DOI: 10.1186/s13047-015-0094-5
Researchers have revealed that HIV does not cause AIDS by the virus’s direct effect on the host’s immune cells, but rather through the cells’ lethal influence on one another. HIV can either be spread through free-floating virus that directly infect the host immune cells or an infected cell can pass the virus to an uninfected cell.... Read more »
Nicole L.K. Galloway et. al. (2015) Cell-to-Cell Transmission of HIV-1 Is Required to Trigger Pyroptotic Death of Lymphoid-Tissue-Derived CD4 T Cells. Cell Reports. DOI: http://dx.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2015.08.011
Over the past decade, functional neuroimaging has revealed that our brains go through ever-changing patterns of activity, whether we are active or at rest, healthy or sick, under legal medication or high on illegal drugs. Yet this dynamic activity takes place over the comparatively fixed anatomical grid of neuronal connections; the functional weights of those connections therefore must be changing over time. Bratislav Misic, Marc G. Berman and their colleagues, from the Rotman Research Institute........ Read more »
Mišić, B., Fatima, Z., Askren, M., Buschkuehl, M., Churchill, N., Cimprich, B., Deldin, P., Jaeggi, S., Jung, M., Korostil, M.... (2014) The Functional Connectivity Landscape of the Human Brain. PLoS ONE, 9(10). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111007
A creepy case report in the journal Neurocase describes a man who came to believe that his reflection was another person who lived behind the mirror.
The patient, Mr. B., a 78-year-old French man, was admitted to the neurology department in Tours:
During the previous 10 days, Mr. B. reported the presence of a stranger in his home who was located behind the mirror of the bathroom and strikingly shared his physical appearance. The stranger was a double of himself: he was the same size,... Read more »
Diard-Detoeuf, C., Desmidt, T., Mondon, K., & Graux, J. (2015) A case of Capgras syndrome with one’s own reflected image in a mirror. Neurocase, 1-2. DOI: 10.1080/13554794.2015.1080847
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Stephanie J. Crowley, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Biological Rhythms Research Laboratory Department of Behavioral Sciences Rush University Medical Center Chicago, IL 60612 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Crowley: Your readers may have seen … Continue reading →
The post Light From Electronic Screens Can Disrupt Teenage Sleep Patterns appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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Stephanie J. Crowley, Ph.D., & Assistant Professo. (2015) Light From Electronic Screens Can Disrupt Teenage Sleep Patterns. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michaela Ann Dinan Ph.D. Assistant Professor in Medicine Member of Duke Cancer Institute Duke University School of Medicine Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Dinan: For many years … Continue reading →
The post Oncotype DX Assay Can Help Guide Adjuvant Breast Cancer Chemotherapy appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and News.
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Michaela Ann Dinan Ph.D. (2015) Oncotype DX Assay Can Help Guide Adjuvant Breast Cancer Chemotherapy. MedicalResearch.com. info:/
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Juliana Schroeder PhD, Assistant Professor Berkeley Haas Management of Organizations Group University of California at Berkeley Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Schroeder: Whereas much research examines how … Continue reading →
The post Patients In Greatest Need of Health Care Perceive Their Physicians As “Empty” appeared first on MedicalResearch.com Medical Research Interviews and........ Read more »
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:, & Juliana Schroeder PhD, Assistant Professor. (2015) Patients In Greatest Need of Health Care Perceive Their Physicians As "Empty". MedicalResearch.com. info:/
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