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I am a physician interested in clinical neuroscience research. I will use this blog to post more detailed analysis of recent studies in addition to my @WRY999 Twitter scientific reading log. I will also post some of my wildlife/sports photography. Aim to educate and amuse. Not selling anything.

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  • December 13, 2011
  • 02:01 PM

Weight Suppression and Bulimia Recovery

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Weight suppression is a variable that is defined as highest ever historical weight minus current weight.  It represents a measure of the level of weight lost since being at the highest weight over a lifetime.Although many individuals with bulimia nervosa are within normal weight ranges, these individuals tend to have higher levels of weight suppression than those without an eating disorder.Weight loss in bulimia may increase drive for binge eating.  Weight suppression may similarly be ........ Read more »

Lowe, M., Berner, L., Swanson, S., Clark, V., Eddy, K., Franko, D., Shaw, J., Ross, S., & Herzog, D. (2011) Weight suppression predicts time to remission from bulimia nervosa. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(6), 772-776. DOI: 10.1037/a0025714  

  • December 12, 2011
  • 01:16 PM

Best Test for Diagnosing Alzheimer's Dementia

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

PET Image Normal Definitive diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from other forms of dementia is a complex clinical challenge.  Positron imaging tomography (PET) scans are widely available in the United States.  A more recent approach has used the estimation of brain amyloid levels using an amyloid ligand Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB).  PiB imaging is primarily a research tool at the present.I have previously summarized some of the research related to PiB imaging from a lectur........ Read more »

Rabinovici GD, Rosen HJ, Alkalay A, Kornak J, Furst AJ, Agarwal N, Mormino EC, O'Neil JP, Janabi M, Karydas A.... (2011) Amyloid vs FDG-PET in the differential diagnosis of AD and FTLD. Neurology, 77(23), 2034-42. PMID: 22131541  

  • December 14, 2011
  • 01:44 PM

Brain and Gut in Processing Emotion

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex in BlueIntense emotional experiences frequently occur with bodily sensations such as a rapid heart rate or gastrointestinal distress.It appears that bodily sensation (interoception) can be an important source of information when judging one's emotional.  How the brain processes interoception is becoming better understood. However, how the brain integrates interoceptive signals with other brain emotional processing circuits is less well understood.Terasawa and........ Read more »

  • May 31, 2011
  • 08:49 AM

Brief Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia in Older Adults

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Insomnia is a common complaint in the general population and among patients treated by primary care physicians.  This is particularly true for older adults who experience physiological changes in sleep with aging.  Clinicians commonly prescribe hypnotics for insomnia and the use of these types of drugs is increasing in the United States and elsewhere.  Behavioral and psychological interventions may be overlooked or bypassed in the sequencing of interventions for complaints of inso........ Read more »

Buysse, D., Germain, A., Moul, D., Franzen, P., Brar, L., Fletcher, M., Begley, A., Houck, P., Mazumdar, S., Reynolds, C.... (2011) Efficacy of Brief Behavioral Treatment for Chronic Insomnia in Older Adults. Archives of Internal Medicine, 171(10), 887-895. DOI: 10.1001/archinternmed.2010.535  

  • August 22, 2011
  • 09:46 AM

Brain Response to Food in Anorexia vs Bulimia

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

The eating disorders anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa share some common features.  Excessive fear of being fat is a core feature of both disorders.  However, key clinical differences between the disorders exist.Most patients with bulimia nervosa are in the normal to overweight category.  Anorexia nervosa by definition requires being of low weight, often to such extreme levels to pose a danger of death due to the effects of starvation.Now we have a study using fMRI that examine........ Read more »

Brooks, S., O′Daly, O., Uher, R., Friederich, H., Giampietro, V., Brammer, M., Williams, S., Schiöth, H., Treasure, J., & Campbell, I. (2011) Differential Neural Responses to Food Images in Women with Bulimia versus Anorexia Nervosa. PLoS ONE, 6(7). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022259  

  • October 13, 2010
  • 05:50 PM

The Brain Insula: Function and Disease

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Nature Reviews Neuroscience is a scientific journal dedicated to neuroscience topics that recently celebrated it’s ten year anniversary.  To commemorate the accomplishment, the most highly cited articles from each of the last 10 years was identified.  This method provides a good proxy for the most important publication each year.  The 2009 most cited article was Dr. A.D. Craig’s article entitled: “How do you feel—now? The anterior insula and human awareness”.Dr. Craig’........ Read more »

Luo L, Rodriguez E, Jerbi K, Lachaux JP, Martinerie J, Corbetta M, Shulman GL, Piomelli D, Turrigiano GG, Nelson SB.... (2010) Ten years of Nature Reviews Neuroscience: insights from the highly cited. Nature reviews. Neuroscience, 11(10), 718-26. PMID: 20852655  

  • November 16, 2010
  • 04:35 PM

Brain MRI White Matter Intensities: Clinical Significance

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

T2 White Matter Hyperintensity (Mild left, Extensive right)Novel imaging findings emerge with the advancement of imaging techniques.  Commonly, the meaning of new imaging findings is unknown until further clinical research provides answers.  This situation describes the finding of white matter intensities on brain magnetic resonance imaging.  White matter intensities are relatively common in the aging brain as well as with a variety of clinical disorders.  Two manuscripts pro........ Read more »

Murray, M., Senjem, M., Petersen, R., Hollman, J., Preboske, G., Weigand, S., Knopman, D., Ferman, T., Dickson, D., & Jack, C. (2010) Functional Impact of White Matter Hyperintensities in Cognitively Normal Elderly Subjects. Archives of Neurology, 67(11), 1379-1385. DOI: 10.1001/archneurol.2010.280  

  • January 21, 2011
  • 12:12 PM

Low-dose Doxepin for Insomnia Treatment

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Doxepin is a tricyclic antidepressant drug with significant sedative effect recently studied for use as a hypnotic in the treatment of insomnia.  Doxepin has strong antagonistic effects on several neurotransmitter receptors including the histamine (one and two), serotonin (two), alpha one adrenergic and muscarinic acetylcholinergic receptors.Juliane Weber and colleagues recently reviewed clinical trial research related to doxepin and insomnia treatment.  For depression, doxepin typical........ Read more »

  • February 23, 2011
  • 05:17 PM

Brain Circuit Tied to Gambling Risk in Parkinson Disease Identified

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Some of the drugs used to treat Parkinson disease (PD) increase the risk for pathological gambling.  This can have a significant economic adverse effect on some individuals.  I have previous posted on the use of amantadine in reducing pathological gambling in PD.  Although some medications may reduce the risk of pathological gambling, there is a need to further understand the mechanism of drug-related gambling behavior.Cilia and colleagues from the University of Toronto as well as........ Read more »

Cilia R, Cho SS, van Eimeren T, Marotta G, Siri C, Ko JH, Pellecchia G, Pezzoli G, Antonini A, & Strafella AP. (2011) Pathological gambling in patients with Parkinson's disease is associated with fronto-striatal disconnection: A path modeling analysis. Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society. PMID: 21284039  

  • June 23, 2011
  • 09:41 AM

Brain Basis for Emotion Recognition Deficits in Depression

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

There is a emerging understanding of the role of social perception problems in depression and anxiety disorders.  Depression appears to effect the cognitive ability to judge the facial expression of others.  This impairment poses a challenge for interpersonal function and social relationships.  Research is now pinning down the neural basis for this deficit and to determine it’s persistence and the effect of depression remission on this social cognition function.van Winge........ Read more »

van Wingen, G., van Eijndhoven, P., Tendolkar, I., Buitelaar, J., Verkes, R., & Fernández, G. (2010) Neural basis of emotion recognition deficits in first-episode major depression. Psychological Medicine, 41(07), 1397-1405. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291710002084  

  • March 2, 2011
  • 11:19 AM

Decoding the Faces of Depression: Anhedonia and Dopamine

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Diego Pizzagalli presented the March 2011 Warren Frontiers in Neuroscience Series lecture in Tulsa, Oklahoma on March 1, 2011.  Dr. Pizzagalli works at the Harvard Medical School affiliated Center for Depression, Anxiety and Stress Research & Neuroimaging Center at McLean Hospital in Boston.  He has been involved in research related to brain abnormalities in major depression as well as predictors of treatment response.  I will highlight some of the key points from his lecture ........ Read more »

  • June 15, 2011
  • 10:34 AM

ADHD and the Athlete

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Athletes are not spared from the risk of developmental disorders like learning disabilities and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).  Once an athlete is diagnosed with ADHD, the effect of this disorder and it's treatment on athletic performance becomes important.  Dr. J. W. Parr recently published a comprehensive review of recent research and understanding of ADHD in the athlete.   The review includes a look at diagnostic issues as well as a summary of the neurobi........ Read more »

  • September 7, 2011
  • 12:59 PM

Neurobiology of Tourettes Syndrome

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Tourette Sydrome is a neuropsychiatric, childhood-onset disorder characterized my motor tics in addition to vocal (phonic) tics.  Original estimates of the prevalence of this condition was that it was very rare.  However, it appears that many individuals with the condition has a relatively mild form of the disorder.  Including these individuals produces a prevalence rate of between .1% and 1% of the population.Common motor tics presenting on average around ages 5 to 7 years of age........ Read more »

Felling RJ, & Singer HS. (2011) Neurobiology of tourette syndrome: current status and need for further investigation. The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 31(35), 12387-95. PMID: 21880899  

  • June 29, 2011
  • 12:15 PM

Vilazodone: A Novel Antidepressant

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Vilazodone was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the U.S. earlier this year, but is just now becoming available in pharmacies for prescription use.  The drug is marketed in the U.S. under the trade name Viibyd.  It is novel in that it the only antidepressant that combines two mechanisms that can increase serotonin in the brain cortex: selective serotonin reuptake inhibition and partial agonism of the 5HT1A receptor.  There are multiple selective serotonin reuptake in........ Read more »

  • July 26, 2011
  • 12:01 PM

Hoarders: Mental Disorder Profiles

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Hoarding is under increased scrutiny in both the public presence and clinical neuroscience research.  Some of this can be attributed to the television show Hoarders.  This show profiles a series of individuals with hoarding behaviors and the attempts made by professionals trying to help them.If you have seen any of the shows you quickly realize that this problem is easy to assess but difficult to treat.   The effect on family members of hoarders is often extreme.  Family........ Read more »

Frost RO, Steketee G, & Tolin DF. (2011) Comorbidity in Hoarding Disorder. Depression and anxiety. PMID: 21770000  

  • September 14, 2010
  • 05:46 PM

The Neurocircuitry of Anorexia Nervosa

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Walter Kaye, M.D., Director of the Eating Disorders Treatment and Research Program at the University of California, San Diego presented a Frontiers in Neuroscience  lecture on September, 14, 2010.   The presentation was titled: “ Is anorexia nervosa an eating disorder? New insights into puzzling symptoms”.  The presentation highlighted some his recent research that has been summarized in the manuscript cited at the end of this blog post.Dr. Kaye noted that eating disorder........ Read more »

  • October 5, 2010
  • 05:56 PM

Risk Factors in Children with a Bipolar Parent

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Dr. Audie Henin presented the October 2010 lecture for the Warren Frontiers of Neuroscience series on October 5, 2010.  Her presentation “Familial, Neurobiological and Cognitive Risk Factors for Bipolar Disorder in Youth” will be summarized in my notes below.  Dr. Henin is an associate professor at Harvard University and is affiliated with Massachussetts General Hospital.Dr. Henin and her research team have been involved in a series of studies in high-risk children focusing on a va........ Read more »

Henin A, Biederman J, Mick E, Sachs GS, Hirshfeld-Becker DR, Siegel RS, McMurrich S, Grandin L, & Nierenberg AA. (2005) Psychopathology in the offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: a controlled study. Biological psychiatry, 58(7), 554-61. PMID: 16112654  

Henin A, Mick E, Biederman J, Fried R, Wozniak J, Faraone SV, Harrington K, Davis S, & Doyle AE. (2007) Can bipolar disorder-specific neuropsychological impairments in children be identified?. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 75(2), 210-20. PMID: 17469879  

  • June 11, 2012
  • 11:52 AM

Preterm Birth as a Risk Factor for Mental Disorders

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Identification of risk factors for mental disorders is a key step in prevention.  Although genetic factors contribute significantly to risk of mental disorders, environmental factors are also important.Preterm birth appears to be an important risk factor for a variety of neurological and psychiatric mental disorders.  Nosarti and colleagues from Sweden recently published a study in the Archives of General Psychiatry of preterm births and adult hospitalization rate for six categories.He........ Read more »

  • May 12, 2011
  • 09:09 AM

Ecstasy Designer Drug 2C-E and a Death in Oklahoma

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Chemical Structure 2C-EIf you are a parent of a teenager I hope you took chemistry in high school or college because you are going to need it.  The reason you are going to need it is the emergence of designer drugs of abuse.  Designer drugs typically have a parent compound that is chemically modified.  There are two key reasons to modify existing illegal compounds: 1.) the new compound may not be illegal until state and federals laws can be modified and 2.) the new compound may ha........ Read more »

Meyer MR, & Maurer HH. (2010) Metabolism of designer drugs of abuse: an updated review. Current drug metabolism, 11(5), 468-82. PMID: 20540700  

  • September 7, 2010
  • 04:29 PM

Perfectionism as a Risk Factor for Anorexia Nervosa

by William Yates, M.D. in Brain Posts

Temperament is generally defined as innate early emotional and behavioral characteristics that precede puberty and adult development.  Felt to have significant genetic components, temperament is also potentially influenced by environmental factors. There are a variety of temperament domains that have received significant attention in childhood, adolescent and adult populations.  Some of the most commonly studied domains include:neuroticismharm avoidancenovelty seekingreward depend........ Read more »

Wade TD, Tiggemann M, Bulik CM, Fairburn CG, Wray NR, & Martin NG. (2008) Shared temperament risk factors for anorexia nervosa: a twin study. Psychosomatic medicine, 70(2), 239-44. PMID: 18158375  

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